No More Menstrual Pain with Light Therapy

Light exposure may affect menstrual cycles and symptoms through the influence of melatonin secretion. In Kaiyan Medical we have been studying portable devices to relieve menstrual pain using low-level light stimulation. Menstrual pain often afflicts women and girls, but the intensity and impact on quality of life vary widely. A cross-sectioned analytical study found that 84 percent reported menstrual pain which often required medication and even resulted in missing work.

Reduce the pain with light therapy

Many women rely on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but of course, some prefer to avoid their undesirable side-effects. Other common menstrual pain management methods, according to the National Institutes of Health, include: applying heat with hot water bottles or heating pads, warm baths, or going to the sauna; special diets and dietary supplements; herbal products and herbal teas for medicinal use; homeopathic medicines; and procedures which target pain stimulus such as acupuncture, acupressure or TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation). Light therapy devices add another alternative to targeting the pain source with low-level light stimulation applied at acupuncture points.

Light therapy devices improves blood flow and thereby reduces menstrual cramps with via photo-activated modulation of smooth muscle tissue. Usually, the light from the light therapy devices is emitted for a fixed amount of time (from 10 to 20 minutes). The light stimulation reaches the uterus and increases the secretion of nitrous oxide (NO). The NO spreads over the smooth muscle in the uterine cells and under continuous light stimulation produces a phosphate particle called cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). These particles continuously flow out and relax the smooth muscles so they receive oxygen and nutrition.

In the Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, subjects using the low-level light therapy showed statistically significant reduction in pain levels after a month and barely any pain after three months. This compares to a placebo group that showed slight pain reduction over time. The study concluded that

“skin adhesive low-level light therapy on acupuncture points might be an effective, simple, and safe non-pharmacological treatment for dysmenorrhoea.”

In this study, a total of 31 women with dysmenorrhoea were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the active or placebo low-level light therapy groups . Of 31 participants, 21 participants received real light therapy, while the remaining 10 participants received placebo one. All participants in the active low-level light therapy group reported either complete pain relief In the active low-level light therapy group, 16 women had successful results during their menstrual cycle, and 5 women had successful results at the second menstrual cycle.

The most interesting thing about this study, is that they conclude that the direct cause of dysmenorrhoea might not be changes in bioactive substances, such as hormone imbalance, a decrease in serotonin levels or excessive prostaglandin production, but the abnormal function of parts of smooth muscles in the uterus secondary to long-term deficient blood supply into smooth muscle tissue caused by disease or stress. This condition can be improved with light therapy.

Our light therapy products can help as well with back pain, skin, depression, sleep cycles, and pets.


References

Light Exposure, Melatonin Secretion, and Menstrual Cycle Parameters: An Integrative Review - Mary…
Dysfunction in menstrual physiology has pronounced effects on quality of life, involving mood changes, body image…journals.sagepub.com

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Banikarim C, Middleman AB, GeVner M, Hoppin AG (2011) Pri- mary dysmenorrhea in adolescents. http://www.uptodate.com. Accessed 01 Dec 2011

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Bulletti C, DE Ziegler D, Setti PL, Cicinelli E, Polli V, Flamigni C (2004) The patterns of uterine contractility in normal menstruat- ing women: from physiology to pathology. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1034:64–83

Mueller A, Maltaris T, Siemer J, Binder H, HoVmann I, Beckmann MW, Dittrich R (2006) Uterine contractility in response to diVer- ent prostaglandins: results from extracorporeally perfused non- pregnant swine uteri. Hum Reprod 21(8):2000–2005

Berkow R (1992) The Merck manual of diagnosis and therapy, 16th edn. Merck Research Laboratories, New Jersey

Eby GA (2007) Zinc treatment prevents dysmenorrhea. Med Hypotheses 69(2):297–301

Marjoribanks J, Proctor M, Farquhar C, Derks RS (2010) Nonste- roidal anti-inXammatory drugs for dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 20(1):CD001751 Review

Tramer MR, Moore RA, Reynolds DJ, McQuay HJ (2000) Quan- titative estimation of rare adverse events which follow a biological progression: a new model applied to chronic NSAID use. Pain 85(1–2):169–182

Smith KC (2010) Laser and LED photobiology. Laser Therapy 19(2):72–78

Tiphlova O, Karu T (1988) Stimulation of Escherichia coli divi- sion by low-intensity monochromatic visible light. Photochem Photobiol 48(4):467–471

Ball KA, Castello PR, Poyton RO (2011) Low intensity light stim- ulates nitrite-dependent nitric oxide synthesis but not oxygen con- sumption by cytochrome c oxidase: implications for phototherapy. J Photochem Photobiol B 102(3):182–191

Witt CM, Reinhold T, Brinkhaus B, Roll S, Jena S, Willich SN (2008) Acupuncture in patients with dysmenorrhea: a randomized study on clinical eVectiveness and cost-eVectiveness in usual care. Am J Obstet Gynecol 198(2):166.e1–166.e8

Schiøtz HA, Jettestad M, Al-Heeti D (2007) Treatment of dysm- enorrhoea with a new TENS device (OVA). J Obstet Gynaecol 27(7):726–728

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The Road to Remission: Light Therapy Proves Effective for Cancer Survivors

It's common to describe cancer as something you battle, because dealing with the disease feels truly like something you have to conquer. It's a moment in life that forever changes you and the lives around you. Apart from physical health, cancer affects your mental health equally. It brings in a wide range of emotions and feelings that a person has probably never had to deal with until that moment. Up until the condition, people deal with hardships, but not like this. 

While getting used to intense medical treatments and significant lifestyle changes, these situational adjustments all fall heavy on the shoulders of those who are sick. 

Luckily beating the beast is possible. Fighting off and beating cancer can be done. 

The most common treatment and way of going against cancer is through chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is a form of therapy that works throughout the whole body, targeting the cells that divide equally fast during cancer. Certain chemotherapy drugs could lead to the damage of cells in your heart. Chemotherapy can also increase your odds of getting heart problems, such as weakening the muscle (cardiomyopathy) and general problems with your cardiac rhythm (arrhythmia).

It takes a long time for the body to heal and regenerate post-treatment, and sometimes an even longer time before people can feel like themselves again. Putting the body back in optimal health is crucial. This may be easier said than done, and maintaining the health of your immune system isn't something to take lightly. 

The immune system gets stronger over time, but it has to stay strong; which is the bigger challenge and one that, if failed, struggles to return. It is possible to upkeep the immune system, and many are looking towards non-invasive therapeutic options in this realm. For cancer survivors, many struggle to determine what’s next in their help journey. For many, they are seeking out non-invasive and non-pharmaceutical treatments as they enter remission, which is where light therapy comes in. 

The types of light therapy range from aiding in superficial skin problems and hair regrowth, to deeper cellular healing from within. The way that light therapy works is via our powerful cells. It targets and penetrates the cells, rejuvenating and provoking acceleration at the reproduction stage. Higher cell production equates to a faster rejuvenation of cells, which provides the body with stronger and healthier cells overall. The higher the cell count, the healthier the body, since light therapy helps with cellular healing via genetic material and ATP—the powerhouse of our entire system. 

Light therapy and cancer may sound completely unrelated; however, you may want to rethink that; in addition to help stimulate healthy cell turnover, light therapy can also be a tremendous aid in sleep disorders. During sleep, our bodies are naturally healing and in the process of regeneration, however, cancer, and cancer treatments and medications, can lead to a very disrupted circadian rhythm

Together, disturbance of circadian activity in adult or pediatric cancer patients has been associated with greater fatigue, poorer quality of life, impaired immune function, lower responsiveness to chemotherapy, earlier relapse, and higher risk of death than patients with robust (healthy) circadian activity rhythms.

Infrared light therapy has been studied for a while in cancer patients; one study, in particular, indicates that light therapy works on the corrupted genetic material that could kill cancer cells. In the study, circadian rhythms became more synchronized, and quality of life was better within the trial testing of light therapy's effect on cancer. 

Light therapy has a multitude of benefits for cancer survivors, providing them a non-invasive, non-pharmaceutical treatment that works at the cellular level. It can repair and maintain health just by improving circadian rhythms that lead to a healthier body and stronger immune system. And this is crucially important since sleep is one of the most important elements in staying strong and healthy post-recovery.

Kayian's light therapy devices are MDA-certified and FDA-certified, and are perfect for in-clinic or at-home treatments. We offer you the opportunity to treat yourself, or your patients, by stepping out of the traditional medical options, a place where many often feel powerless. Supplementing light therapy in treatment and recovery has proven to be a life-changing, safe, and powerful modality.

Light Therapy: Detection and Treatment of Bovine Mastitis

Mastitis

“Mastitis” is one of the major challenges for the dairy industry worldwide, as this is the most common and costliest disease of dairy animals and contributes a substantial economic loss to dairy farmers. The subclinical stage of mastitis, i.e., Sub-clinical mastitis (SCM) in the dairy cow, is a matter of great concern for farmers as its incidence is more than clinical. In most animal farms, monitoring of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis (CM) is usually performed through an indirect test such as pH, electrical conductivity, somatic cell count (SCC), California mastitis test (CMT), culture test, and biomarker tests.

Apart from these, there is a need for new rapid and sensitive technology to identify udder infections at early stages. Early detection of mastitis using non-invasive technology needs the hour to reduce the dairy industry's economic loss and farmers. Skin surface temperature is a critical indicator of an organism's bio-physiological health status due to infection-induced inflammatory reactions, local blood circulation, metabolism, and skin surface temperature increases. Thus, monitoring the emitted heat from the udder can help in the early detection of mastitis. Moreover, Infrared thermography (IRT) using the susceptible thermal camera can monitor subtle skin surface temperature changes. IRT with the mobile-based application can further play an important role in managing dairy farms on various aspects.

IRT Imaging

SirWilliamHerschel,aBritishastronomer, in the year 1800, discovered Infrared radiation (IR) in sunlight. IR is electromagnetic radiation whose wavelength ranges from 700 nm (frequency 430 THz) to 1mm (300GHz). IR thermography works on principle proportional to their temperature, all objects using conduction, convection, and radiation, following Stefan-Boltzmann law, emits infrared radiation. Thus, Infrared thermography (IRT) can detect body surface temperature changes due to subtle blood flow changes.

Udder Health Status

Good udder health is one of the important conditions for clean milk production. The adequate steps help in the reduction of udder infections to contribute to clean milk production. Therefore, researchers are trying to monitor the milking process using IRT. Moreover, the udder thermogram can assess the milking hygiene, as the udder surface's cleanliness influences the measurement results, mostly surface temperature. The major concern of udder health is related to the occurrence of subclinical and clinical mastitis. Mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary gland causing physiological, biochemical, and pathological changes in udder parenchyma, result in alteration of milk quality.

Subclinical and Clinical Mastitis

IRT technology can detect clinical and subclinical mastitis. Subclinical mastitis is the major concern as it leads to more economic losses to the dairy farmers. In many cases, the cow's milk productivity and milk quality may reduce permanently. Early detection of sub-clinical mastitis can help diagnose and causative agents and help implement economic loss. The sensitivity and specificity technique used to detect subclinical mastitis using IRT is similar to that of the California mastitis test. An increase in temperature of more than 1oC was an indicator of mastitis and recommended IRT as a complementary tool in the early diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in Holstein and Brown Swiss cows.

Fig 1: Infrared thermogram of udder quarters for the normal and healthy quarter from a lateral view. RFQ: Right front quarter, RHQ: Right hind quarter LFQ: Left front quarter, LHQ: Left hindquarter.

Change in udder surface temperature and its measurement using Infrared thermography (IRT) in sub-clinical and clinical mastitis vary from the healthy quarter. Various researchers documented a wide range of differences. Therefore IRT can be used as a promising tool for the assessment of udder health. But, contradictory results are available in sub-clinical mastitis detection using RT, whereas mastitis can be detected efficiently using IRT.

Use of Light Therapy in the Treatment of Bovine Subclinical Mastitis

Methods: Forty cows with subclinical mastitis (n = 40) were divided into 4 groups (control, photodynamic therapy — PDT, light irradiation — LED, and photosensitizer — PS). The control group received no treatment. The PDT group received an application of 1.0 mL of 2.5% toluidine blue photosensitizer followed by LED irradiation at λ = 635 nm. The LED group was treated with LED irradiation alone, and the PS group received only 2.5% toluidine blue dye. LED irradiation was applied to the mammary gland utilizing an acrylic light guide coupled to the LED equipment. The PDT and LED groups were irradiated with 200 J/cm2 at three different positions inside the mammary gland. Milk samples were collected at 0 h, 12 h, 24 h after treatment for microbial identification and total bacterial count.

Results: The treatment of the PDT group showed a significant difference p < 0.05, characterizing this technique's efficiency with the reduction of the microorganisms Streptococcus dysgalactiae and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus.

Conclusion: Photodynamic therapy was effective when applied in vivo for subclinical bovine mastitis. There was no need to separate the animal from production.

Final Thoughts

Mastitis is one of the major concerns of the dairy industry, which leads to huge economic loss. In addition to established laboratory methods available for its diagnosis, there is a need to address in the light of early mastitis detection by some susceptible non-invasive techniques as well. Infrared thermography(IRT)using the susceptible thermal camera can be used as a non-invasive technique. Due to udder physiological changes during subclinical and clinical mastitis, IRT can measure the subtle change in udder temperature. Thus, infrared thermography may be a suitable tool for detecting mastic animals' early detection and dairy cattle screening. As there are some limitations adhered with IRT such as sunlight, moisture, dirt, weather conditions, etc. may influence the IRT's accuracy level, there is a need to explore IRT for diagnostic purposes subclinical and clinical mastitis under Indian climatic conditions.

References

Sinha, Ranjana. (2018). Infrared thermography as noninvasive technique for early detection of mastitis in dairy animals. 37. 10.18805/ajdfr.R-1746.

Moreira LH, de Souza JCP, de Lima CJ, Salgado MAC, Fernandes AB, Andreani DIK, Villaverde AB, Zângaro RA. Use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of bovine subclinical mastitis. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2018 Mar;21:246-251. doi: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2017.12.009. Epub 2017 Dec 16. PMID: 29258951.

Ahmad, T., Bilal, M.Q., Ullah, S. and Muhammad, G. (2005). Effect of severity of mastitis on pH and specific gravity of buffalo milk.Pak J Agri Sci., 42: 3-4.

Alejandro, M., Romero, G., Sabater, J.M. and Diaz, J.R. (2014). Infrared thermography as a tool to determine teat tissue changes causedby machine milking in Murciano Granadina goats. Livest. Sci., 160: 178-185.

Annual Report, 2016-17, Department of Animal Husbandry Dairying and Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers welfare,Government of India, pp 61.

Bangar, Y.C., Singh B, Dohare, A.K. and Verma, M.R. (2015). A systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence of subclinicalmastitis in dairy cows in India. Trop Anim Health Prod., 47: 291–297.


Killing Cancer Cells with the Help of Infrared Light

Researchers at NCI’s Center for Cancer Research have found that a technique called near-infrared immunotherapy for treating cancer has the potential to kill cancer cells in record time, essentially destroying them with the flick of a light switch. Scientists were not certain of the underlying mechanisms of this approach. Still, they succeeded in elucidating this technique in detail at the cellular and molecular level, gaining insights that could help scientists further boost the novel treatment's effectiveness. The laboratory and mouse findings, by Hisataka Kobayashi, M.D., Ph.D., Senior Investigator in the Molecular Imaging Program, and colleagues appeared November 6, 2018, in ACS Central Science.

Near-infrared immunology is an emerging technique for treating cancer that is already being studied in clinical trials. It involves identifying a protein called an antibody that recognizes and targets a specific type of cancer cell. The antibody is joined to a compound that’s sensitive to light and then administered to a patient. Within the body, the drug seeks out and attaches to only cancer cells, not healthy ones. Next, doctors apply a beam of infrared light to the cancer site, either externally or directly, using a fiber optic needle, which activates the drug and causes them to die. Research by Dr. Kobayashi and his colleagues reveals new details into how this cell death occurs.

To learn more about this phenomenon's molecular mechanisms, they studied the effects of a near-infrared immunotherapy agent called antibody-IR700 on a plate simulating human cancer cells in a petri dish using sophisticated microscopes. The researchers discovered that exposure to near-infrared light causes the immunotherapy agent to change its form from Y-shaped to globular dramatically. When it is embedded in a cancer cell's cell membrane, this warping causes scratches along the cell's protective casing. Once enough scratches occur, liquid bursts through the cell’s membrane, causing the cell to rupture in less than a minute following exposure to the light.

The researchers also studied this technique in a mouse with multiple tumors, applying different light intensity amounts to each tumor. They found that higher light intensity resulted in more cancer cells being eliminated. In mice, they detected the “leftovers” of the immunotherapy agent in the mouse’s urine just hours after near-infrared light was applied to the cancer site — a strong indication that the cancer cells were killed.

Dr. Kobayashi notes that this technique doesn’t just target cancer cells or boost the immune system to attack cancer cells — it does both. “All the cell’s proteins and even its DNA are exposed to the immune system. The immune system will recognize that [the proteins and DNA are] coming from the dying cell, and then the immune system will react only to the dying cancer cells,” he explains.

Near-infrared immunotherapy could be applied to any cancer if the right antibody is identified and used. In this study, the researchers analyzed the near-infrared immunotherapy agent IR-700, which is about to be tested in phase III clinical trials for head and neck cancer.

Although the concept of near-infrared immunotherapy is compelling, understanding why it works is critical for several reasons. Kobayashi explains, “Based on these new insights, we might be able to design a new, superior IR700 that would be improved in many respects, such as activation wavelength, stability, and cytotoxic efficacy.”

Immunological consequences after NIR

Destroying cancer cells without damaging normal cells nor compromising the host immune system is a significant benefit of NIR-PIT. Additionally, NIR-PIT induces ICD; that is, it initiates host immunity against targeted cancer cells. NIR-PIT-treated cancer cells release death signals, including calreticulin, ATP, and HMGB1, which can activate adjacent immature DCs even in tumor beds. These signals promote the maturation of immature DCs, which engulf cancer-specific antigens that are released from the ruptured tumor cell, and these mature DCs prime and educate naive T cells to become cancer-specific CD8+ T cells. Such newly primed cancer-specific CD8+ T cells proliferate and attack other cancer cells, resulting in an amplified host anti-tumor immune response. This consequential process could convert some non-immunogenic tumors into immunogenic tumors by recognizing massively released neo-antigens.

This anti-tumor immune activation occurs first in the treated tumor site. Eventually, it extends to other cancer sites because immune cells migrate throughout the body, resulting in a systemic immune response. Therefore, although NIR-PIT is a local therapy, the effect of NIR-PIT can be systemic and may affect distant metastatic sites. Indeed, some tumor-bearing mice and cancer patients achieve complete remission after a single therapy of cancer-cell-targeted NIR-PIT.

An important feature of host immune activation induced by NIR-PIT is that this therapy simultaneously activates the immune system against multiple antigens released from ruptured cancer cells. Most current targeted immunotherapies, including cancer vaccines or CAR-T therapies, identify a single target molecule to base the therapy. Having multiple clones of anti-tumor T cells, each responding to unique antigen, results in a more comprehensive response to tumors expressing a broad spectrum of cancer-specific neo-antigens.

NIR-PIT has demonstrated a profound immune response in humans. First-in-human Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical trials of NIR-PIT with cetuximab–IR700 targeting EGFR in patients with recurrent and advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer were completed in 2016 and late 2017, respectively. Several complete remissions and multiple significant partial remissions were reported in these studies. The results far exceeded those of pre-clinical models in immune-deficient host xenograft models. Once the models were transferred to syngeneic models, a robust immune response was demonstrated. There is considerable evidence that this same response is seen in humans.

With Autoimmunity on the Rise, Light Therapy is Here to Aid in Prevention and Treatment

The medical industry has taken great strides in helping to improve our understanding of the human body. We’ve found an effective treatment for Hepatitis C, eradicated smallpox and rinderpest, and are working on treatments to cure cancer. No one can say we haven’t been successful in the medical world, particularly with the help of incredible research and technology. 

However, there is one family of disease that continues to be somewhat of a mystery in the medical world. And while it’s being highly studied, more and more people are being diagnosed with it. 

What’s the mystery disease? It’s autoimmunity. 

Now, autoimmune diseases can vary greatly, as it's an umbrella term for many autoimmune-based disorders. However, they all have one common thread, in that the body's natural defense system cannot tell the difference between your own cells and foreign cells. This causes the body to attack its own cells healthy unknowingly. 

Under the term "autoimmune diseases," there are around 80 different types that affect various parts of the body, with some of the most common forms manifesting as celiac, IBS, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis.  

The symptoms of autoimmune diseases aren’t pleasant ones by any means. However, they do range depending on the specific condition. Many people with an autoimmune disease experience multiple symptoms such as severe inflammation, joint and pain swelling; as well as skin conditions, recurring fever, swollen glands, and digestive issues. 

Though we know the symptoms of autoimmune diseases, the underlying cause can be difficult to determine for patients – exact cause of autoimmune disorders is unknown. 

More importantly, autoimmune disorder cases are rising. A study published this year showed a staggering rise in autoimmunity in the U.S., particularly in the rate of people testing positive for antinuclear antibodies (ANA), the most common marker of autoimmunity. Over the course of 25 years, the researchers found an overall 50 percent increase. That is astounding. 

Even though we understand these diseases are increasing, we don't know why.

But there is more and more evidence that the balance of microbiome in our guts plays a significant role. Having a diverse range of microbes positively influences our immune systems. People living in developed countries have higher rates of autoimmune diseases due to our less microbially environments. In other words, we're inside more, overuse antibiotics, live with chronic stress, and have poor diets. Not a great combination for a long and healthy life. 

Autoimmune disorders are a reflection of the unhealthy environment we've created for ourselves. We're overworked, stressed, and not supplying our bodies with the proper nutrients. Of course, a lifestyle change is necessary to reduce autoimmune disorders cases and symptoms. But there's another thing you can do to help yourself, and that's by undergoing at-home light therapy treatment

First, light therapy helps to improve immune cells, which is crucial for those with autoimmune disorders. When undergoing red light therapy, cells respond to the wavelengths. Pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α is released from the cells, and leukocytes (white blood cells) can enter the body's tissue to promote healing. In addition, red light therapy aids in activating lymphocytes, which increases the movement of epithelial cells, thus healing wounded areas quickly and increasing cell turnover rates. 

But there are other symptoms red light therapy focuses on, and it's joint pain and inflammation. For people who have rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and other autoimmune diseases, inflammation and pain are a daily struggle. One study found that light therapy significantly improved inflammatory cells during both the early and late stages of Rheumatoid arthritis. 

By using Lunas’ red light therapy devices, you’re able to tackle multiple symptoms of autoimmune disease, reduce your stress levels, and improve your immune system by investing a few minutes sitting or standing in front of your red light device.

Light & Food Preservation

Consumers demand high-quality processed foods with minimal changes in nutritional and sensory properties. Nonthermal methods are considered to keep food quality attributes better than traditional thermal processing. Pulsed light (PL) is an emerging non-thermal technology for decontamination of food surfaces and food packages, consisting of short time high-peak pulses of broad-spectrum white light. It is considered an alternative to continuous ultraviolet light treatments for solid and liquid foods. This paper provides a general review of the principles, mechanisms of microbial inactivation, and PL treatments applications on foods. Critical process parameters that are needed to be optimized for better efficiency of PL treatments are also discussed. PL has considerable potential to be implemented in the food industry. However, technological problems need to be solved to avoid food overheating and achieve better penetration and treatment homogeneity. Besides, more extensive research is needed to understand how PL affects quality food attributes.

Nonthermal technologies

Nonthermal technologies are being applied in food processing as a viable alternative to thermal processing. Traditionally, most foods are thermally processed by subjecting them to temperatures between 60 °C for a few minutes and 100 °C for a few seconds. During this period, a large amount of energy is transferred to the food, which may trigger reactions that lead to undesirable changes or by-products formation. During nonthermal processing, food temperature is held below that achieved in thermal treatments. Thus, vitamins, essential nutrients, and flavors are expected to undergo minimal or no changes.

Pulsed light (PL) is used for the rapid inactivation of microorganisms on food surfaces, equipment, and food packaging materials. The terms high-intensity broad spectrum pulsed light and pulsed white light are synonymous with PL.

Inert-gas flash lamps generate intense and short pulses of ultraviolet (UV) light for microbial inactivation started during the late 1970s in Japan. In 1988, extensive experimentation carried out by PurePulse Technologies Inc. provided a pulsed light process called PureBright® to sterilize pharmaceuticals, medical devices, packaging, and water. The process's efficacy was tested against a broad range of microorganisms, including bacteria (vegetative cells and spores), fungi, viruses, and protozoa. However, the food industry adopted the technology only in 1996, when the Food and Drug Administration approved the use of PL technology for the production, processing, and handling of foods.

Description of PL

PL involves the use of intense pulses of short duration and a broad spectrum to ensure microbial inactivation on the surface of either foods or packaging materials. Electromagnetic energy is accumulated in a capacitor during fractions of a second and then released in the form of light within a short time (nanoseconds to milliseconds), resulting in an amplification of power a minimum of additional energy consumption (Dunn et al. 1995). Typically, the equipment used to produce PL comprises one or more adjustable xenon lamp units, a power unit, and a high-voltage connection that allows the transfer of a high current electrical pulse. As the current passes through the lamp unit's gas chamber, a short, intense burst of light is emitted. The light produced by the lamp includes broad-spectrum wavelengths from UV to near-infrared. The wavelength distribution ranges from 100 to 1,100 nm: UV (100–400 nm), visible light (400–700 nm), and infrared (700–1,100 nm). Pulses of light used for food processing applications typically emit 1 to 20 flashes per second at an energy density in the range of about 0.01 to 50 J cm−2 at the surface (Barbosa-Canovas et al. 1998).

Liquid Foods

Many fluids, such as water, have a high degree of transparency to a broad range of wavelengths, including visible and UV light. Other liquids, such as sugar solutions and wines, exhibit more limited transparency. Increasing the number of solids will diminish the intensity of UV radiation's penetration. In an aqueous solution, the lower the transparency, the less effective the PL treatment. Liquids with high UV absorbance must be treated as a thin layer to reduce the liquid's radiation absorption. In this manner, the liquid's UV absorption is low, and bacteria are more likely to be subjected to lethal doses. The absorbance of clarified fresh juices and juices containing pulp varies considerably. Clarified apple juice has a low absorbance, with absorption coefficients about 11 cm−1, whereas absorbance of orange juice can achieve values close to 50 cm−1. A positive correlation between vitamin C content and the absorption coefficient of clear apple juices was observed.

Conclusions

PL is a novel non-thermal technology to inactivate pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms on foods. The significant microbial reductions in short treatment times, the limited energy cost of PL, the lack of residual compounds, and its great flexibility are some of the technique's major benefits. This method is clearly efficient in inactivating microorganisms in vitro, but its potential for real foods is still under investigation. Further studies need to be conducted to assess PL treatments' effects on food properties beyond safety and spoilage. There is a need for optimizing the critical process factors to achieve the target inactivation level for specific food applications without affecting quality. PL equipment with good penetration and short treatment times need to be designed for commercial purposes. Also, the applicability of PL treatments on an industrial scale needs to be compared with other nonthermal or conventional thermal processes.

References

Anderson, J. G., Rowan, N. J., MacGregor, S. J., Fouracre, R. A., & Farish, O. (2000). Inactivation of food-borne enteropathogenic bacteria and spoilage fungi using pulsed-light. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 28(1), 83–88. doi:10.1109/27.842870.

Baka, M., Mercier, J., Corcruff, R., Castaigne, F., & Arul, J. (1999). Photochemical treatment to improve storability of fresh strawberries. Journal of Food Science, 64, 1068–1072. doi:10.1111/j.1365–2621.1999.tb12284.x.

Barbosa-Canovas, G. V., Pothakamury, U. R., Palou, E., & Swanson, B. G. (1998). Nonthermal preservation of foods pp. 139–161. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Barka, E. A. (2001). Protective enzymes against reactive oxygen species during ripening of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits respond to low amounts of UV-C. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 28, 785–791.

Bialka, K. L., & Demirci, A. (2007). Decontamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on blueberries using ozone and pulsed UV-light. Journal of Food Science, 72(9), 391–396. doi:10.1111/j.1750–3841.2007.00517.x.

Bialka, K. I., & Demirci, A. (2008). Efficacy of pulsed UV-light for the decontamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on raspberries and strawberries. Journal of Food Science, 00(0), 1–7.

Bialka, K. I., Demirci, A., & Purl, V. M. (2008). Modeling the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on raspberries and strawberries resulting from exposure to ozone or pulsed UV-light. Journal of Food Engineering, 85(3), 444–449. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2007.08.007.

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Elmnasser, N., Dalgalarrondo, M., Orange, N., Bakhrouf, A., Haertlé, T., Federighi, M., et al. (2008). Effect of pulsed-light treatment on milk proteins and lipids. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 1984–1991. doi:10.1021/jf0729964.

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Photodynamic Therapy for Cancer

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment that uses a drug, called a photosensitizer or photosensitizing agent, and a particular type of light. When photosensitizers are exposed to a specific wavelength of light, they produce a form of oxygen that kills nearby cells

Each photosensitizer is activated by light of a specific wavelength. This wavelength determines how far the light can travel into the body. Thus, doctors use specific photosensitizers and wavelengths of light to treat different areas of the body with PDT.

How is PDT Used to Treat Cancer?

In the first step of PDT for cancer treatment, a photosensitizing agent is injected into the bloodstream. The agent is absorbed by cells worldwide but stays in cancer cells longer than it does in normal cells. Approximately 24 to 72 hours after injection, when most of the agent has left normal cells but remains in cancer cells, the tumor is exposed to light. The photosensitizer in the tumor absorbs the light and produces an active form of oxygen that destroys nearby cancer cells.

In addition to directly killing cancer cells, PDT appears to shrink or destroy tumors in two other ways. The photosensitizer can damage blood vessels in the tumor, thereby preventing cancer from receiving necessary nutrients. PDT also may activate the immune system to attack the tumor cells.

The light used for PDT can come from a laser or other sources. Laser light can be directed through fiber optic cables (thin fibers that transmit light) to deliver light to areas inside the body. For example, a fiber optic cable can be inserted through an endoscope (a thin, lighted tube used to look at tissues inside the body) into the lungs or esophagus to treat cancer in these organs. Other light sources include light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which may be used for surface tumors, such as skin cancer.

PDT is usually performed as an outpatient procedure. PDT may also be repeated and used with other therapies, such as surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.

Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is a type of PDT in which a machine is used to collect the patient’s blood cells, treat them outside the body with a photosensitizing agent, expose them to light, and then return them to the patient. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved ECP to help lessen the severity of skin symptoms of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that has not responded to other therapies. Studies are underway to determine if ECP may have some application for other blood cancers and help reduce rejection after transplants.

What Types of Cancer are Currently Treated with PDT?

To date, the FDA has approved the photosensitizing agent called porfimer sodium, or Photofrin®, for use in PDT to treat or relieve the symptoms of esophageal cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Porfimer sodium is approved to relieve esophageal cancer symptoms when cancer obstructs the esophagus or when cancer cannot be satisfactorily treated with laser therapy alone. Porfimer sodium is used to treat non-small cell lung cancer in patients for whom the usual treatments are not appropriate and relieve symptoms in patients with non-small cell lung cancer that obstruct the airways. In 2003, the FDA approved porfimer sodium to treat precancerous lesions in patients with Barrett esophagus, a condition that can lead to esophageal cancer.

What are the Limitations of PDT?

The light needed to activate most photosensitizers cannot pass through more than about one-third of an inch of tissue. For this reason, PDT is usually used to treat tumors on or just under the skin or on the lining of internal organs or cavities. PDT is also less effective in treating large tumors because the light cannot pass far into these tumors. PDT is a local treatment and generally cannot treat cancer that has spread.

Does PDT have any Complications or Side Effects?

Porfimer sodium makes the skin and eyes sensitive to light for approximately 6 weeks after treatment. Thus, patients are advised to avoid direct sunlight and bright indoor light for at least 6 weeks.

Photosensitizers tend to build up in tumors, and the activating light is focused on the tumor. As a result, damage to healthy tissue is minimal. However, PDT can cause burns, swelling, pain, and scarring in nearby healthy tissue. Other side effects of PDT are related to the area that is treated. They can include coughing, trouble swallowing, stomach pain, painful breathing, or shortness of breath; these side effects are usually temporary.

What Does the Future Hold for PDT?

Researchers continue to study ways to improve the effectiveness of PDT and expand it to other cancers. Clinical trials (research studies) are underway to evaluate PDT's use for cancers of the brain, skin, prostate, cervix, and peritoneal cavity (the space in the abdomen that contains the intestines, stomach, and liver). Other research is focused on the development of more powerful photosensitizers, more specifically target cancer cells, and are activated by light that can penetrate tissue and treat deep or large tumors. Researchers are also investigating ways to improve equipment and the activating light's delivery.

Light Therapy Clinical Trial Aims to Accelerate Recovery from COVID-19

Ontario is a known leader in conducting innovative clinical trials, and the clinical trials community in Ontario has proven this strength throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. One innovative trial underway in Ontario is Vielight Inc.’s COVIDlight trial, which tests whether the recovery of COVID-19 patients may be accelerated by the use of a specialized light therapy device. This trial was made possible in part by Clinical Trials Ontario’s Trial Site Network through a connection made between Vielight Inc. and Impact Clinical Trials. CTO spoke with representatives from Vielight and Impact Clinical Trials about their trial and their experience with the Trial Site Network.

Light Therapy Device for the Treatment of COVID-19

Vielight Inc. has developed a compact and portable device named the “Vielight RX Plus,” based on the science of photobiomodulation (PBM). PBM uses certain light energy to modify cellular functions and can play a role in the management of COVID-19. This clinical trial assesses the efficacy of the Vielight RX Plus to reduce symptom duration and severity in patients suffering from COVID-19.

The Vielight RX Plus device delivers light therapy to the sternum and the nasal canal.

“This device brings a holistic approach to the treatment of COVID-19 patients,”

said Nazanin Hosseinkhah, Research Scientist and Physicist at Vielight Inc.

“The device stimulates the thymus gland, creates nitric oxide, increases natural killer cells, acts as an anti-inflammatory therapy, and increases cellular energy.”

This unique, at-home study has the potential to modulate immune cell and cytokine activity in COVID-19 patients with an easy to use the device.

“We are very hopeful that this trial will prove to help patients recover from COVID-19 at home, and result in less burden to the healthcare system,”

said Hosseinkhah.

Clinical Ttrial

This randomized controlled trial, being managed by Impact Clinical Trials, is actively recruiting 280 participants who are confirmed to have contracted COVID-19. The trial was authorized by Health Canada in early September and is recruiting participants in Ontario and the United States. Participants are allocated into a treatment or a control group, with 140 participants randomized to receive the Vielight RX Plus device and the other 140 participants receiving the current standard of care. The trial is conducted remotely with non-hospitalized participants.

Participants in the treatment group receive the device by courier within 24 hours of registering for the trial. They are asked to place the device on their chest and onto their nostril for 20 mins each day. They then track their symptoms within a daily survey over a 30-day period.

“This is a simple, at-home study for participants to be involved in,”

said Andrea Berk from Impact Clinical Trials.

“Participants in both the treatment and the control groups are completely supported throughout the trial, with a 24-hour number they can call if they have any questions.”
Connections

This trial was made possible in part by a connection made directly through CTO’s Trial Site Network.  The Trial Site Network, part of CTO’s Industry Concierge program, comprises more than 230 sites. The Network allows CTO to provide warm introductions to Ontario’s hospitals, research institutions, private research networks, and CROs.

“We have been able to guide companies such as Vielight in getting their trials up and running in Ontario,”

said Andrew Haller.

“I was introduced to Andrew Haller from CTO a few months before the COVID-19 pandemic,”

said Berk.

“Pre-COVID I was working on half a dozen connections that had been made through the Trial Site Network. When COVID-19 hit, those projects were put on hold. I reached out to Andrew to let him know Impact Clinical Trials had the consulting capacity, and that is when he introduced us to Vielight.”

Haller knew that Vielight had been searching for someone to take on the management of their clinical trial. “When Andrew introduced us to Andrea Berk from Impact Clinical Trials, we immediately connected and knew they were the right fit,” said Hosseinkhah.

What You Need to Know About Red Light Therapy and Homeostasis

Our bodies are in constant need of replenishing our cells with oxygen, nutrients, and ATP energy to stay on top of our day to day activities. Also, the optimal function of our cells boils down to maintaining the balance that our body needs. This is also known as homeostasis.

Homeostasis Defined

The scientific definition of homeostasis is in a state of equilibrium, wherein the body’s chemical and physical processes are stable. The balance of the body is dependent on a plethora of factors, such as body temperature, calorie intake, level of blood sugar, the balance of fluid, and pH levels.

These factors are constantly changing and require regulation. They also adapt to changing environments like temperature, light, and activities. Reaching homeostasis requires balance for the body to reach its optimal state. This is present in humans' biology and animals' biology because it determines physical and mental performance, even stress response.

Homeostasis in Cellular Energy

The mitochondria break down food and oxygen to produce ATP energy for the body during the cellular respiration process. Healthy light intake is important in cellular energy to stimulate the mitochondria and efficiently produce ATP energy without inflammation and oxidative stress that may disrupt the cellular respiration process. Red and NIR light therapy enhances cellular and mitochondrial function to ensure that the cellular respiration process works efficiently.

Homeostasis in Body Temperature

Our bodies respond to changes in external temperature through sweating and shivering. These internal temperature processes regulate the body to maintain a temperature balance. The normal body temperature is about 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. When the body is at a normal temperature, it’s easier to perform well. It can also indicate homeostasis and balance in the body, which we naturally try to achieve. On the other hand, experiencing a fever or being exposed to the cold can make it hard to function well for a long time.

Homeostasis and Calcium Levels

The body’s calcium is usually found in the bones and teeth, but the calcium in the blood requires constant maintenance at about 10 mg/dL. Calcium is essential for blood circulation, coagulation, and bone mineralization. When calcium is low, you may suffer from an irregular heartbeat and other health risks. Meanwhile, when calcium is high, the body may feel exhausted and sluggish because of the nervous system's inactivity. Skeletal, endocrine, and digestive systems in the bodywork hand in hand to maintain basic calcium homeostasis and balance.

Imbalance in the Body

The natural and continuous goal of the body in homeostasis, but many factors are at play. When we use our digestive, respiratory systems, and all the other organs, we need the necessary energy to process nutrients from food, oxygen, and light. The bodily systems are interdependent with one another and need each other to maintain balance.

When one system is lacking, the body naturally compensates by getting from another system to maintain balance. An example is a homeostasis in calcium levels in the bloodstream, which relies on food intake. If the diet lacks calcium, the body gets calcium from the bones, which technically regulates the calcium needed in the bloodstream, but eventually, it will make the bones weak and brittle.

The resourcefulness of the body to shift functions is a great deal. Still, in the long run, it may lead to serious health problems, possibly building up deficiencies and difficulties over time. It is imperative to be aware of the body’s balance and how diet, exercise, and light exposure are interconnected.

Healthy Light’s Effects on Biological Balance and Good Health

Light empowers the cells and enhances the cellular respiration process, creating ATP energy more efficiently. Aside from being essential for our life on earth, having enough light intake is an indication of biological balance. In fact, not getting your regular dose of sunlight may result in inflammation, sluggishness, off circadian rhythms, and poor sleeping habits. Most of the time, people don’t get enough light from their environment since they stay indoors and are surrounded by artificial light.

Being indoors is not how bodies are designed. We are programmed to thrive when our cells intake a good amount of healthy light. Not enough sunlight exposure can make the body imbalanced and lead to decreased energy production and Vitamin D.

Red Light Therapy and Homeostasis

You must be intentional in spending time outdoors to ensure that your body gets the amount of healthy light it requires. However, given the circumstances and limitations that we have, most people really do not get enough natural light, which red light therapy can solve.

Red light therapy is a non-invasive treatment that delivers red and NIR light wavelengths to the skin and cells and helps the mitochondria in cells produce enough ATP energy. Red light therapy helps keep the body and cells balanced, giving enough energy and power to the body even if there’s not enough light in the environment.

Final Thoughts

Our bodies function better when we reach biological balance or homeostasis. A balanced cellular environment indicates good health, and getting healthy light is an important variable to biological balance, on top of exercise, diet, and sleep. Red light therapy helps promote homeostasis and improve overall health by supporting a more efficient cellular environment. Red and NIR light wavelengths stimulate the mitochondria, producing more ATP energy that empowers the body.

If you want to read more about red light therapy and its benefits, you may go to our red light therapy blog. On the other hand, if you want to see our red light therapy devices breakdown, please don’t hesitate to browse through our catalog.

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Red Light Therapy Can Help Reduce Inflammation

We can usually identify inflammation when we see it. The inflamed part of the body looks red and swollen, and it feels hot and painful. But in this article, we’ll find out why we experience inflammation, as well as its causes, risk factors, and how red light therapy devices can help reduce it.

What Really is Inflammation?

Inflammation is our body’s natural response to pain, irritation, damaged cells, exposure to germs, and potential danger. There are two types of inflammation:

1. Acute inflammation

This type of inflammation happens as our body’s healthy response to injury or stress. We mean “healthy” because it helps the body recover faster. The inflammation happens only for a few hours and then starts to repair the damaged tissue.

2. Chronic inflammation

On the other hand, chronic inflammation can be excruciating and may cause discomfort or inconvenience. It causes an imbalance in the body, making it operate inefficiently over time. Chronic inflammation can be caused by viral infections, repetitive tissue damage, autoimmune reactions, and persistent and recurring acute inflammation. At its worse, this type of inflammation may lead to more serious diseases and/or conditions such as cancer, stroke, depression, and heart disorder.

Common Causes of Inflammation

Anything that causes stress on your body may lead to inflammation. These include:

  • Bruises
  • Bumps
  • Burns
  • Chemical irritants
  • Dehydration
  • Diseases
  • Excessive alcohol
  • Infection
  • Irritants
  • Poor nutrition
  • Poor sleep
  • Splinters
  • Toxin exposure
  • Wounds and injuries

Signs of Inflammation

There are five common signs of inflammation:

  • Heat on the inflamed area
  • Loss of function (i.e., you can’t move your arms or legs)
  • Pain
  • Redness
  • Swelling
Treatment Options for Inflammation

For acute inflammation, doctors normally recommend nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen and paracetamol. Meanwhile, chronic inflammation may also be prescribed with NSAIDs, along with steroids and supplements.

However, these common treatment options help prevent inflammation symptoms but do not deal with the root cause, including improper cellular function, biological imbalance, and damaged tissues. This is also why lifestyle changes (improved diet, regular exercises, and high-quality sleep) and red light therapy could be of great help.

How Red Light Therapy Works Against Inflammation

Red light therapy, also referred to as low-level laser therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation (PBM), is a non-invasive treatment option. This kind of therapy delivers wavelengths of red and near-infrared (NIR) light to your skin and cells for multiple benefits. When it comes to inflammation, it can help cut down oxidative stress and activate protective cellular mechanisms to boost your immune system and protect you from diseases that may cause inflammation. It can also boost the generation of healing agents and antioxidants in the body to speed up damaged tissues' healing process.

Red light therapy can give your body the light exposure needed to function more efficiently, improve blood flow, and limit inflammation.

Conclusion

Inflammation is a natural part of our biological processes, but chronic cases may also lead to serious health risks that can affect the quality of your life. Therefore, if you’re experiencing signs of inflammation, regardless if it’s acute or chronic, please schedule an appointment with your doctor to get the care and treatment you need as early as possible.

In the meantime, to protect your body from the stress that may cause inflammation, you can do red light therapy either through a health provider or from the comfort of your home. If you need to purchase red light therapy devices, you can browse through our catalog to see the brands and products that we offer.


Red Light Therapy for Enhanced Cellular Function

The one thing we have in common with animals, plants, and other living organisms is that we are all made of tiny little cells. The intricate human body in itself houses trillions of cells. Without cells, there wouldn’t be any life on Earth at all.

In this article, we discuss cellular anatomy and cellular function. Here, we understand how light plays a role in the support and acceleration of cellular respiration.

What is a cell?

Think of cells as the basic building block of all living organisms. As the smallest unit of life, cells contain many parts, each with a different and specific function. The command center of the cell is called the nucleus that contains the human DNA.

As these cells combine to form into an organism, they become responsible for vital activities like nutrient intake, energy production, structure building, and hereditary material processing. They make sure that your body gets enough energy and nutrients to function 24/7.

What is ATP?

One essential activity that our cells do for us is by taking in oxygen and nutrients to fuel body energy. This energy unit that is converted by the cells is called Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Energy.

The ATP itself is a molecule packed with high energy that empowers cellular function. ATP is required by the body to do every activity. Other cells that do more strenuous activities like muscle cells would need more ATP than others. The ideal optimal cellular function would allow cells to produce and use enough energy to achieve body balance or homeostasis.

How is ATP produced?

The mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell. They are responsible for the production of ATP. Aside from cellular energy, this double-membrane powerhouse does protein synthesis, cell signaling, and cell apoptosis. ATP is produced with oxygen (aerobic) or without oxygen (anaerobic), the former being more beneficial because it converts more energy. Thus, 95% of cellular energy goes through an aerobic process.

Our cells go through a process called Aerobic cellular respiration to convert oxygen, food, and water into the body’s energy currency, which is ATP. This process is a well-organized metabolic pathway that consists of four stages. Our bodies take in nutrients from the food we eat for the first two stages to convert them into carbon compounds. Then for the next steps, these carbon compounds are transformed into the energy that our cells use.

How does light therapy support cellular function?

Light can sometimes be less attributed to improve our body’s physiology. However, light has benefits that go beyond aesthetic and technological purposes. Just like how light plays a role in plants' photosynthesis, it also benefits human cellular function.

Red light therapy from Kaiyan Medical composes of Red and Near-Infrared Wavelengths that aid in the Mitochondria's function to produce more ATP energy. It works by increasing the number of Mitochondria in our cells and by boosting their function.

The electron transport chain heavily governs the cellular respiration process. Red Light therapy has photons that can boost the mitochondria to function better through the Cytochrome C Oxidase. It plays an essential role in the cellular respiration process by improving the cell's electron transfer process. In this way, more ATP can be produced by the body for an enhanced cellular function.

As mentioned earlier, oxygen plays an essential role in the cellular respiration process. The infamous Nitric Oxide can take the rightful place of oxygen to limit ATP production that causes stress and cellular death. Red light therapy also gets rid of a harmful roadblock to ATP in the dissociation of Nitric Oxide and the Cox. The photons from Red light therapy prohibits the production of nitric oxide.

The effect that Red Light therapy does on our body is that by improving cellular function, our body can achieve these benefits:

  • Improved blood Flow
  • Increased Energy Build up
  • Enhanced Healing Response
  • Reduced Inflammation
  • Reduced Stress
  • Balanced Cellular Function

As you do daily activities such as eating, drinking, walking, or working out, think of the massive role that your cellular system plays to make these activities possible. In this way, you can put conscious efforts into improving your cellular system through a healthy diet and lifestyle and by integrating Red Light Therapy.

References:

https://www.healthline.com/health/red-light-therapy#how-does-it-work?

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5215870/

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/325884

https://www.britannica.com/science/cell-biology

https://www.britannica.com/science/mitochondrion

https://www.nationalgeographic.org/media/cellular-respiration-infographic/

The Effect of Green & Red Light Therapy on Hearing

Low-level laser therapy

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been practiced for over 20 years in Europe and has been introduced in the United States as a treatment for pain and postsurgical tissue repair. It has been proposed that laser energy in the red and near-infrared light spectrum may aid in the repair of tissue damage. A proposed mechanism for this therapeutic effect is the stimulation of mitochondria in the cells to produce more energy through the production of adenosine triphosphate.

Studies in humans have investigated the effects of LLLT on both hearing loss and tinnitus, with equivocal results. Some studies have found an improvement in hearing thresholds and tinnitus symptoms.

The Subjects

A total of 35 adult subjects were enrolled in the study. Two subjects withdrew from the study due to loss of interest and/or scheduling difficulty. The data from three additional subjects were not included in the analysis. One subject yielded unreliable audiometric and speech understanding data, speech scores could not be obtained from one subject with a profound hearing loss, and calibration problems compromised data from the third subject. Data from the remaining 30 subjects were included in the analyses. The experimental protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of The University of Iowa, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants.

The Device

An Erchonia EHL laser was used to provide the laser stimulation. The device was a portable unit that consisted of a hand-held probe and a main body. The probe contained two laser diodes. One diode produced light in the green part of the visible light spectrum (532 nm wavelength), and the other diode produced light in the red part of the visible light spectrum (635 nm wavelength). Both diodes produced energy levels of 7.5 mW (class IIIb). The laser beams from both diodes were dispersed through lenses to create parallel line-generated beams, rather than spots. A second Erchonia EHL device served as the placebo. It was identical to the treatment device, except that the laser diodes were replaced with nonfunctioning standard light-emitting diodes.

The Groups

The study used three groups: treatment, placebo, and control. Subjects were pseudorandomly assigned to one of the three groups.

Initial group assignment was random with occasional adjustment to ensure that the three groups were similar in terms of number of participants, female/male ratio, mean age of participants, and mean pure-tone audiometric thresholds. The treatment group received the laser treatment protocol using the functional laser device. The placebo group also received the laser treatment protocol, but using the nonfunctioning laser device. The control group made similarly timed visits to the laboratory but received no real or feigned “treatment.” The study used a repeated-measures design, with each subject taking a battery of pretests, followed by treatment followed by a battery of posttests.

Analysis

Data were obtained from both ears of each subject. Since no obvious differences were seen between left and right ears, data from both ears were combined in the following analyses. Strictly speaking, this likely violates the statistical assumption of independent sampling, since the test results from left and right ears of a single subject are likely to be highly correlated. None of the statistical tests used in the analyses are robust to the assumption of independent sampling, and the effect of including both ears is likely to be that of artificially increasing the sample size, making it more likely that a statistically significant result will be found. All statistical tests were conducted using a significance level of .

Conclusions

No statistically significant effect of LLLT on auditory function was found, as assessed by pure-tone audiometry, speech understanding, and TEOAEs in this test. Additionally, no individual subjects showed any clinically significant change. It remains possible that other methods of LLLT could have an effect on hearing. The type of device used was not the best one for this type of study. Further research elucidating the anatomic and physiologic bases for therapeutic effects of LLLT on hearing are needed before further clinical testing is warranted.

More References

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How Music Healing Therapy Can Help Breast Cancer Patients

What is music therapy?

According to the World Federation of Music Therapy, this term refers to the use of music and / or its elements (sound, rhythm, melody, harmony) with a patient or group of patients, in a process created to facilitate, promote communication , relationships, learning, movement, expression, organization, and other relevant therapeutic goals to meet physical, emotional, mental, social, and cognitive needs.

Music therapy aims to develop potential and / or restore the functions of the individual in such a way that he can achieve a better intra and / or interpersonal integration and consequently a better quality of life through prevention, rehabilitation and treatment.

Learn also more about sound healing and light therapy.

How does this therapy help breast cancer patients?

It was the Taipei Medical University that has developed a study that has given the following conclusion: listening to music at home reduces the severity of symptoms, the intensity of pain and the fatigue experienced by patients with breast cancer .

For the study, published in the “European Journal of Cancer Care,” 60 participants listened to music in five 30-minute sessions per week. After 6, 12 and 24 weeks, music therapy reduced the severity of symptoms, as well as the intensity of pain and fatigue. Furthermore, it instantly reduced physical and mental fatigue.

“The use of music can help the physical and psychological well-being of patients,” explained the study’s lead author, Kuei-Ru Chou. He has also recommended that home music interventions be given to breast cancer patients to reduce their negative thoughts associated with the disease.

From Medina Reeds we send a message of support to all patients who suffer from this disease and we invite everyone, patients and non-patients to apply music therapy on a day-to-day basis for all the wonderful benefits that music brings us.

References

Ref.“Hamburg, 1996, Clinical Practice Committee of the World Federation of Music Therapy”. nineteen ninety six.

https://www.sespm.es/la-musicoterapia-ayuda-a-pacientes-con-cancer-de-mama/

No More Menstrual Pain with Light Therapy

Light exposure may affect menstrual cycles and symptoms through the influence of melatonin secretion. In Kaiyan Medical we have been studying portable devices to relieve menstrual pain using low-level light stimulation. Menstrual pain often afflicts women and girls, but the intensity and impact on quality of life vary widely. A cross-sectioned analytical study found that 84 percent reported menstrual pain which often required medication and even resulted in missing work.

Reduce the pain with light therapy

Many women rely on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but of course, some prefer to avoid their undesirable side-effects. Other common menstrual pain management methods, according to the National Institutes of Health, include: applying heat with hot water bottles or heating pads, warm baths, or going to the sauna; special diets and dietary supplements; herbal products and herbal teas for medicinal use; homeopathic medicines; and procedures which target pain stimulus such as acupuncture, acupressure or TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation). Light therapy devices add another alternative to targeting the pain source with low-level light stimulation applied at acupuncture points.

Light therapy devices improves blood flow and thereby reduces menstrual cramps with via photo-activated modulation of smooth muscle tissue. Usually, the light from the light therapy devices is emitted for a fixed amount of time (from 10 to 20 minutes). The light stimulation reaches the uterus and increases the secretion of nitrous oxide (NO). The NO spreads over the smooth muscle in the uterine cells and under continuous light stimulation produces a phosphate particle called cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). These particles continuously flow out and relax the smooth muscles so they receive oxygen and nutrition.

In the Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, subjects using the low-level light therapy showed statistically significant reduction in pain levels after a month and barely any pain after three months. This compares to a placebo group that showed slight pain reduction over time. The study concluded that

“skin adhesive low-level light therapy on acupuncture points might be an effective, simple, and safe non-pharmacological treatment for dysmenorrhoea.”

In this study, a total of 31 women with dysmenorrhoea were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the active or placebo low-level light therapy groups . Of 31 participants, 21 participants received real light therapy, while the remaining 10 participants received placebo one. All participants in the active low-level light therapy group reported either complete pain relief In the active low-level light therapy group, 16 women had successful results during their menstrual cycle, and 5 women had successful results at the second menstrual cycle.

The most interesting thing about this study, is that they conclude that the direct cause of dysmenorrhoea might not be changes in bioactive substances, such as hormone imbalance, a decrease in serotonin levels or excessive prostaglandin production, but the abnormal function of parts of smooth muscles in the uterus secondary to long-term deficient blood supply into smooth muscle tissue caused by disease or stress. This condition can be improved with light therapy.

Our light therapy products can help as well with back pain, skin, depression, sleep cycles, and pets.


References

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Light Therapy - Color Meaning

Introduction to Color Light Therapy

Color Light therapy is based on the idea of restoring balance by applying color to the body. Its history is rooted as far back as the Mayan culture.

In India, Ayurveda, an ancient form of medicine practiced for thousands of years, is based on the idea that every individual contains five elements of the universe that are present in specific proportions unique to each individual, including their personality type and constitution. When these elements are out of balance, Ayurveda works with the energies inherent in the colors of the spectrum to restore this balance.

In ancient Egypt the art of healing with color was founded in the Hermetic tradition, the Ancient Egyptians and Greeks used colored minerals, stones, crystals, salves, and dyes as remedies, and painted treatment sanctuaries in various shades of color.

In China, traditional Chinese medicine incorporates color to be associated with each organ and elemental system. This healing method looks at the idea that every individual is a balance. The first color wheel was invented by Sir Isaac Newton. He split white sunlight into red, orange, yellow, green, cyan, and blue. He then joined the two ends of the color spectrum together to show the natural progression of colors.

Light Therapy has been valued throughout history as a remarkable source of healing. Today, the therapeutic applications of light and color are being investigated in major hospitals and research centers worldwide. Results indicate that full-spectrum, ultraviolet, colored, and laser light can have therapeutic value for a range of conditions from chronic pain and depression to immune disorders.

Wellness Benefits

Light Therapy has been reported, as part of a healthy lifestyle, to temporarily reduce swelling, relieve pain, decrease inflammation, accelerate open wound healing and greatly reduce overall recovery after medical/surgical procedures. Patients have demonstrated an increased range of motion, decreased muscle tension and spasm, and improved circulation.

Rejuvenating LED light therapy can be used for temporary pain management such as joint and back pain, sore or torn muscles, sprains, arthritis, post-surgical scars, burns, wounds, and more. When used with infrared technology, light therapy (phototherapy) is one of the most effective and non-invasive ways to improve overall wellness.

Light therapy is also used to temporarily relieve Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). SAD affects individuals when the lack of sunlight results in seasonal depression. Phototherapy helps with SAD by resetting the internal biological clock (Circadian rhythms), helping individuals sleep better, and regulate their mood. Even companies, such as GE and Philips, have created phototherapeutic products to improve and regulate mood.

Cosmetic Benefits

Light therapy is also a growing treatment for anti-aging. Many individuals have seen a temporary reduction in the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles, crow’s feet, and age spots.

Light therapy is “effective at improving the appearance of the face, neck, and chest by reducing the signs of aging, wrinkles and age spots”, says Web M.D. Combined with infrared therapy, LED phototherapy can be a great way to revitalize skin.

Healing With Color

Color is light split into different wavelengths vibrating at different speeds and at different frequencies. Objects that ABSORB all wavelengths and DO NOT reflect are black in nature. Objects that REFLECT all wavelengths and DO reflect are white in nature. Between black and white lies COLOR. Colors are wavelengths of energy that, to us, appear as color because of the potential and capabilities of the object to either absorb or reflect the energy.

Red Light

In the early 1990s, RLT was used by scientists to help grow plants in space. The scientists found that the intense light from red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) helped promote the growth and photosynthesis of plant cells.

The red light was then studied for its potential application in medicine, more specifically to find out if RLT could increase energy inside human cells. The researchers hoped that RLT could be an effective way to treat the muscle atrophy, slow wound healing, and bone density issues caused by weightlessness during space travel.

You may have heard of red light therapy (RLT) by its other names, which include:

  • photobiomodulation (PBM)
  • low-level light therapy (LLLT)
  • soft laser therapy
  • cold laser therapy
  • biostimulation
  • photonic stimulation
  • low-power laser therapy (LPLT)

Red is called “The Great Healer”. So far is the most popular light therapy. To wind down before bed, use red light. “The color signals that it’s night, which may encourage the body to produce melatonin,” says Michael Breus, Ph.D., an advisory board member for SleepScore Labs.

Red light can also improve your workout. Just one to five minutes of exposure to red and infrared light right before exercise boosted strength and prevented soreness, says Ernesto Leal-Junior, Ph.D., the head of the Laboratory of Phototherapy in Sports and Exercise at Nove de Julho University in Brazil. “Certain wavelengths of red and infrared light-660 to 905 nanometers-reach skeletal muscle tissue, stimulating the mitochondria to produce more ATP, a substance that cells use as fuel,” he says.

Green Light

Green is the universal healing color. Originally, the color of love. Green is midway in the color spectrum; therefore, it contains both a physical nature and a spiritual nature, in equal balance and in equal harmony.

Gazing at green light can reduce chronic pain (caused by fibromyalgia or migraines, for example) by up to 60 percent, according to a study in the journal Pain, and animal studies have shown that the beneficial effects can last up to nine days. “Looking at green light seems to lead to an increase in the body’s production of enkephalins, pain-killing opioid-like chemicals. And it reduces inflammation, which plays a role in many chronic pain conditions,” says researcher Mohab Ibrahim, M.D., Ph.D.

More studies are needed before doctors can make recommendations on how and how often to use green light to treat migraines and other pain, and Dr. Ibrahim says you should see a physician before trying to treat yourself at home. But at this point research indicates that exposing yourself to an hour or two every night-either by using a green light bulb in a lamp or by wearing glasses fitted with tinted optical filters-may decrease migraines and other types of chronic pain

Helps to treat and prevent hyper-pigmentation by inhibiting the production of excess melanin which then prevents it from traveling to the surface. It will help break up the melanin clusters that are already on the surface.

Yellow Light

Yellow helps awaken mental inspiration arousing a higher mentality. Thus, it is an excellent color for nervous or nerve-related conditions or ailments; fueling the solar plexus. Yellow has a very enriching effect upon the intellect. Yellow can be used for conditions of the stomach, liver, and intestines. It can help the pores of the skin by repairing scarred tissue. These rays have an alkalizing effect which strengthens the nerves. Awakening, inspiring, and vitally stimulating the higher mind promoting self-control. Typical diseases treated by yellow are constipation, gas, liver troubles, diabetes, eczema, and nervous exhaustion. Providing clarity of thought, increasing awareness, stimulating interest, and curiosity yellow energy is related to the ability to perceive or understand.

The yellow is used for treating redness, flushing, irritation, and Rosacea. It may also reduce the appearance of the tiny blood vessels on the nose and face.

Blue Light

Blue light therapy technology is an additional option for the treatment of acne. Research has shown in-office and at-home systems produce positive results.

“Blue light therapy effectively helps alleviate this common skin condition affecting 50 million Americans and 94 percent of all females, according to Judith Hellman, MD, a board-certified dermatologist, in practice in New York City. Dr. Hellman, who practices medical dermatology and specializes in dermatological surgery, laser surgery, and anti-aging skin treatments, explains how the blue light treatment system works for acne, its uses, and her clinical experience with the technology.

Cyan Light

It is used as a gentle acne treatment to control oil production in the skin as well as reduce inflammation. It also promotes the synthesis of protein and collagen.

Orange Light

Orange has a freeing action upon the mind, relieving repression. Because orange is a blend of red and yellow, it combines physical energy with mental wisdom, inducing a transformation between lower physical reaction and higher mental response. Thus, it is often referred to as “The Wisdom Ray.” Orange is warm, cheering, and non-constricting.

Through orange, we are able to heal the physical body (red) and, at the same time, induce within the mind (yellow) greater understanding. Orange helps assimilate new ideas. Orange is the best emotional stimulant, helping to remove inhibitions paving independent social behavior. Bring joy to your workday and strengthen your appetite for life. Orange aids in repairing inflammation of the kidneys, gallstones, menstrual cramps, epilepsy, wet cough, and all sinus conditions.

Purple Light

Violet is the last color we can see before light passes on to ultra-violet. Violet purifies our thoughts and feelings giving us inspiration in all undertakings. The violet energy connects us to our spiritual self bringing guidance, wisdom, and inner strength and enhances artistic talent and creativity. Leonardo da Vinci proclaimed that you can increase the power of meditation ten-fold by meditating under the gentle rays of Violet, as found in church windows.

Light therapy uses colors for their proposed wellness abilities in treating emotional and physical disturbances. Light therapy is based on the premise that different colors evoke different responses in people. For example, some colors are considered to be stimulating, whereas others may be soothing. Color therapy has been suggested for many uses, based on tradition or on scientific theories. Consult with a health care provider before using color therapy for any use.

Infrared Light

Infrared light penetrates to the inner layers of the skin at about 2 to 7 centimeters deep. Hence, it reaches the muscles, nerves, and even the bones. Many studies have shown that a frequency of infrared light, with wavelengths from 700 to 1,000 nanometers, is best used for healing inflammatory conditions.

The use of electricity for healing purposes began in 2,750 BC when people used electric eels to give electric shocks. Electricity and magnetism were used in people with just little success. However, in 1975, transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS) was developed to treat chronic pain. It was not until recently that infrared therapy was developed to improve wound healing, reduce the pain caused by arthritis, boost endorphin levels, and bioactivate neuromodulators.

Infrared therapy technology allows people to harness the benefits of the sun, without being exposed to harmful ultraviolet rays. Also, infrared therapy is safe and effective, without adverse side effects. As a matter of fact, infrared light is safe and is used even for infants in neonatal intensive care.

Infrared light is absorbed by the photoreceptors in cells. Once absorbed, the light energy kickstarts a series of metabolic events, triggering several natural processes of the body on a cellular level.

Kaiyan Medical

In Kaiyan, we are in love with light therapy. We believe in the natural balance in our bodies. We develop devices such as the Aduro mask which will provide you with the full range of color light therapies.

References

https://www.estyspot.com/blogs/esthetician-tips/an-estheticians-view-of-led-therapy-benefits-for-all-7-colors

https://www.the-dermatologist.com/content/acne-treatment-blue-light-therapy-benefits-0#:~:text=A%3A%20Blue%20light%20kills%20the,oil%20glands%20in%20the%20skin.

https://www.healthline.com/health/red-light-therapy#summary

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Maher CG. Effective physical treatment of chronic low back pain. Orthop Clin North Am 2004;Jan, 35(1):57-64.

Natural Standard Research Collaboration, Chief Editors: Ulbricht C, Basch E, Natural Standard Herb and Supplement Reference: Evidence-Based Clinical Reviews, USA. Elsevier/Mosby, 2005.

Ohara M, Kawashima Y, Kitajima s, et al. Inhibition Of lung metastasis of B16 melanoma cells exposed to blue light in mice. Int J Molecular Medicine 2002;10(6):701-705.

Wileman SM, Eagles JM, Andrew JE, et al. Light therapy for seasonal affective disorder in primary care: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psych 2001;178:311-316.

Wohlfarth H, Schultz A. The effect of colour psychodynamic environment modification on sound levels in elementary schools. Int J Biosocial Res 2002;(5):12-19.

Zifkin BG, Inoue Y. Visual reflex seizures induced by complex stimuli. Epilepsia 2004;45(Suppl 1):27-29.

Fighting Breast Cancer with Light Therapy

Researcher fighting breast cancer with light therapy
"Metastatic breast cancer can be a devastating diagnosis with high rates of relapse and death, and there are currently no effective therapies,"

Nalinikanth Kotagiri, MD, Ph.D. says.

"Despite newer treatments, many patients still succumb to the disease. Major limitations include acquired resistance to therapies and serious side effects from treatment. Due to the widespread location of breast cancer cells, particularly in the bone marrow, which harbors the tumor cells as well as vital stem cells, the risk of toxicity is even higher with conventional therapies. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies that selectively destroy tumor cells, increase treatment efficacy, prevent relapse and reduce side effects by sparing the healthy stem cells are necessary."


This is why Nalinikanth Kotagiri, MD, Ph.D., assistant professor in the James L. Winkle College of Pharmacy and a cluster hire for the Cincinnati Cancer Center, is hoping to study ways ultraviolet light can activate light-sensitive drugs to treat this invasive breast cancer and provide that light at the end of the tunnel patients yearn for.

Kotagiri has been awarded the Department of Defense Breast Cancer Breakthrough Award—over $600,000 for three years—to try to do just that. His project will focus on light-mediated therapies, which could activate light-sensitive drugs to target only the cancerous cells.

"Therapies such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), involving light and a photosensitizing chemical substance, which used in conjunction with molecular oxygen can cause cell death, offer a high degree of control that is effectively used to manage cancer in early to advanced stages," he says. "It operates on a simple principle where a light-sensitive drug, which is otherwise nontoxic, introduced into certain tissues can cause cell death when activated by light. Despite the promise of PDT, it can't penetrate tissue deeply so its use is limited. Also, current light-sensitive drugs require oxygen to be effective, but many tumors, including breast tumors, have pockets of low oxygen or grow in regions where oxygen is either low or absent, which could prevent effective application of PDT in cancer treatment."

However, Kotagiri says recent work in the lab has led his team to a "two-pronged approach" in addressing these issues.

"We've been using ultraviolet (UV) light from radionuclides (radioactive nuclide or atom), which are already used to image tumors and tissues, and tried to solve oxygen dependence by using metal-based light-sensitive drugs for depth- and oxygen-independent PDT," he says. "By replacing the external light source, such as lasers and lamps, with light from radionuclides as an 'internal' light source, we've been able to better control therapy in the body.
"This could mean more effective therapies with minimal toxicity to vital organs and tissues. Since radionuclides are used in imaging and locating tumors, we can now simultaneously image and treat breast cancer metastasis using the same radionuclide."

Using animal models, researchers in Kotagiri's lab will test whether radionuclide light activation of tumor targeting, light-sensitive drugs will destroy metastatic cancer cells—including those that are resistant to traditional therapies.

"Since how we're killing the cells is not dependent on a certain molecular pathway, the technology could be applicable to treat a wide variety of breast cancers," he adds. "This has the potential to be a common image-guided treatment strategy to treat patients in early as well as advanced stages of the disease, and because of the safety of this treatment strategy, it could be effectively used alongside other treatments, like chemotherapy and immunotherapy, without the risk of additional side effects.
"This could tremendously benefit patients, as it could potentially improve therapeutic outcomes in addition to setting a precedent to tailor other FDA-approved light-sensitive drugs as radionuclide activated therapies, expanding the scope and range of the diseases these drugs currently treat. If proven beneficial, this treatment could be ready for a patient population in 5 to 10 years, since all the materials involved have already been used in humans—this could be an exciting breakthrough."
Clinical Trial - The Effects of Light Therapy to Treat Cancer-related Side Effects

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04418856

Besides what Kotagiri said, severe fatigue, depression, sleep problems and cognitive impairment are the most commonly reported side effects of cancer treatment. These aversive side effects are hypothesized to be related to the disruption of circadian rhythms associated with cancer and its treatment. Exposure to Bright White Light (BWL) has been found to synchronize the circadian activity rhythms but research with cancer patients has been scarce. Therefore, the proposed randomized control trial (RCT) will test if systematic light exposure (sLE) will minimize overall levels of cancer-related fatigue (CRF), depression, sleep problems and cognitive impairment among breast cancer patients undergoing breast cancer treatment (i.e., surgery, chemotherapy). SLE incorporates the delivery of harmless UV-protected BWL or Dim White Light (DWL - standard comparison in light studies) delivered to patients by using special glasses for 30 minutes each morning, during their treatment.

Learn more about the how to improve your circadian rhythm and light therapy & breast feeding

References

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-10-breast-cancer-therapy.html

https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/photodynamic-therapy/about/pac-20385027#:~:text=Photodynamic%20therapy%20(PDT)%20is%20a,energy%2C%20usually%20from%20a%20laser.

https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04418856

Red Light Therapy - 101

We are not just made of biochemical matter. We are charged energy beings, constantly interacting with the environment. Light plays a crucial role in this natural process. Comprehensive new research has unearthed a full new understanding of how our cells function optimally. Food is not the only way we obtain energy; the light also charges us.

Science now shows your body operates like a battery. Certain wavelengths of sunlight power it, and your general health is determined by your ability to receive and maintain a charge. This is what light therapy is about.

What is Red Light Therapy

Light at certain wavelengths is scientifically proven to interact with the body in beneficial ways.

Red light, comprising both red and near-infrared wavelengths, is a unique healing part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and it is one of the most natural ways to charge the body. It is now used as a new form of therapy under the umbrella term Photobiomodulation(PBM)

Red light wavelengths ranging from 600–680nm. Red light boosts the formation of collagen and elastin and assists in cell communication. It penetrates superficially and can be used for skin conditions.

Near-Infrared wavelengths ranging from 750–850nm. NIR stimulates healing, increases mitochondrial function, and improves blood flow and tissue oxygenation. It penetrates deeper into the body.

A high-quality home device like those produced by Kaiyan uses medical-grade LEDs to shine natural red and near-infrared light on your body. Like the wavelengths of light your body needs from natural sunlight, without the heat or UV rays that cause sun damage and without the need for sunny weather. Check the list of best light therapy masks.

How to Recharge your Body

Electric charge is a fundamental property of the body. The surfaces in our bodies — such as membranes, proteins, and DNA — are all charged, negatively or positively, depending on whether they lose or gain electrons.

At the core of your body’s power to heal itself are sub-cellar organelles called mitochondria. The number of mitochondria in a cell varies widely by organism, tissue, and cell type and are concentrated in organs with high energy demands such as the brain, heart, liver, skin, and muscles.

This is because mitochondria generate most of the body's chemical energy supply via the ATP (adenosine triphosphate). They also regulate various other tasks, such as signaling, cellular differentiation, and maintaining control of the cell cycle and cell growth. This is why they are often referred to as the powerhouse of the cell.

Mitochondria
  1. LED light at a wavelength from 600–680nm(red) and between 810–850nm(infrared) is delivered to the tissue via the red light therapy device.
  2. The light enters the cell’s mitochondria and is absorbed by the chromophores, including the protein cytochrome c oxidase(CCO) and EZ water, increasing its activity.
  3. As a result of this highlighted activity, three molecules are affected. Adenosine Triphosphate(ATP), Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), and Nitric Oxide (NO).
Water

Approximately 70% of our body weight and 99% of our bodies ’ molecules are made of water, and this water is in a charged state.

Recent research by Prof Gerald Pollock of the University of Washington has shown that water adjacent to a cell or mitochondrial membrane is so-called structured water. This is also called EZ (exclusion zone) water because it creates a separation of charge. Positive proton is excluded and pushed to the bulk water, and a lattice-like negatively charged water for near the membrane. This increases the voltage across the membrane—this charge separation of water in the body functions as the positive and negative poles of a battery.

What Does “Red Light Therapy” Mean?

As a term, “red light therapy” refers to treatments from LEDs or cold lasers that deliver wavelengths of natural red and near-infrared light.

The term does not include white light, blue light, or blue LED masks, and it is not the same as full-spectrum light. Some people may include infrared or far-infrared wavelengths along with red light therapy, but those are typically used in dry saunas because of their ability to produce heat. Red light therapy does not rely on heat, a major difference between natural light treatments and heat-based modalities like an infrared sauna, traditional sauna, or other heat therapy type.

Generally, “red light therapy” describes natural light treatments that deliver the same therapeutic red and near-infrared wavelengths as natural sunlight. This differs from artificial light treatments like tanning — or bright light therapy from light therapy lamps, lightboxes, or happy-light if you’re interested in natural light treatments for seasonal affective disorder.

The following terms may also call red light therapy: RLT, photobiomodulation (PBM), phototherapy, LED therapy, LED light therapy, infrared therapy, low-level laser therapy, or low-level light therapy (LLLT).

A Multilevel Treatment

Red light therapy works on multiple levels in the body.

Molecular

  • Chromophores, cytochrome c oxidase, water, opsins
  • Retrograde mitochondrial signaling
  • Light-sensitive ion channels
  • Adenosine triphosphate ATP
  • Reactive Oxygen Species ROS

Calcium

  • Heat-shock proteins
  • Melatonin
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
  • Gene transcription factors
  • Akt/mTOR/CyclinD1 pathway

Cellular

  • Inflammation, Cytoprotection, Proliferation
  • Protein synthesis
  • Stem cell production and migration
  • Immune cell viability
  • Retrograde mitochondrial signaling
  • Transforming growth factor
  • Pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines
  • Vascular endothelial
  • Mitochondrial membrane potential

Tissue

  • Muscles: Increase endurance, tone density
  • Brain: Improves cognition and immune
  • Nerves: Repair and pain relief
  • Healing: Bones, tendons, and wounds
  • Hair: Increases growth
  • Skin: Improvements of the collagen network, anti-aging, skin disorders
  • Fat: Fat re-absorption improved by enhanced micro-circulation
  • Lymph: Improved immunity
Systemic Effects

Red light therapy affects multiple bodily systems:

Fascia

The fascia is a complex web of sensitive and highly interconnected connective tissue beneath the skin that attaches, stabilizes, encloses, and separates muscles and other internal organs.

Fascia is primarily made from hydrated collagen-Protein chains in a triple helix formation surrounded by water, with a capacity to generate an electric charge in response to applied mechanical stress (piezoelectric).

The bio-electrical nature of the collagen-rich matrix is the key to understanding how pathological changes in one part of the body may cause a cascade of “remote effects” in seemingly unrelated areas and organ systems. The fascia is the long-overlooked but absolutely crucial interconnecting organ of the human body. The therapeutic effect of red light energy can be carried through the fascia network to other parts of the body where it is needed. This is turn, elevates the body’s capacity to communicate via this charged matrix in a positive feedback loop.

The well-known energy meridians of traditional Chinese medicine may actually be low resistance pathways operating through the fascia, conveying energy to the rest of the body.

Gut-Brain Axis

The gut-brain axis links the emotional and cognitive center of the brain with peripheral intestinal functions. Red light energy applied to the abdomen area can therefore influence mood and neuropsychological issues via several mechanisms:

  • Reduction in bowel inflammation and gut spasms.
  • Stimulation of neurotransmitters and hormones in the gut, including serotonin, leptin, and ghrelin.
  • Modulation of the micro-biome. The gut microbes are sensitive to light energy and respond to light energy with differences in growth, migration, and proliferation of the different species.
  • The increasing availability of neurotransmitters activates the brain’s immune system, increases blood flow, and removes toxins.
  • Increased blood circulation and reduced blood pressure leading to a reduction of anxiety and brain fog.
  • Modulation of the vagus nerve, one of the biggest nerves connecting the gut and brain. This plays an important role in stress and social communication, communicating motor and sensory impulses to every organ in the body.

Immune System

Beaming red light and near-infrared light onto cells creates a short, low-dose metabolic stress that builds up the cells' anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and natural defense systems, making the body stronger and more resilient to infections.

This is the concept of hormesis; safe, low-level exposure to stressor results in increased resistance to illness. Red light has been shown to influence the immune response in several ways:

  • Activation of the mast cells leading to the movement of leukocytes and reduced inflammation.
  • Mast cell DE-granulation and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
  • Increased infiltration of the tissues by leukocytes.
  • Enhanced proliferation, maturation, and motility of fibroblasts
  • Increased production of fibroblast growth factor.
  • Lymphocyte activation and proliferation.
  • Macro-phages activated to act as phagocytes.

Circulatory System

Red light therapy has been shown to aid the circulatory system's functioning and increase the micro-circulation of blood, one of the most recognized and well-documented effects of this therapy.

Red light stimulates the formation of new capillaries carrying more oxygen to the body.

A good oxygen supply is intricately involved in numerous biological processes, including cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and protein synthesis, required to restore tissue function and integrity.

Increased circulation allows for waste products to be carried away more effectively. It triggers and heightens the body’s own scavenging process for and ingesting degenerated cells for clean-up.

In fact, increased micro-circulation of blood is thought to be the most vital function for healing the body for almost every illness. For general well-being, Nutrient-rich blood and efficient waste removal is strongly linked to good health.

Nervous System

The nervous system is a complex electrical system, including the brain and spinal cord. It collects, processes, and responds to the input of energy-be it light, sound, heat, or pressure — and it relays these messages to the brain and around the body.

Red light energy affects the nervous system in several crucial ways:

  • Myelination of fibers and a better lamellar organization of the myelin sheath.
  • Improvement of electrophysiological function.
  • Facilitation of neural regeneration.
  • Release of growth factors.
  • Increase of vascular network and collagen.
  • Faster regeneration of nerve lesions and functional improvement of damaged nerves.

The peripheral nerves can be damaged by infection or high sugar levels in the case of diabetic neuropathy.

Red light therapy is being explored as a promising drug-free therapy for all kinds of nerve damage.

Stem Cells

At the frontier of science, red light therapy shows huge promise in current research to stimulate the growth of stem cells in the body and maximize the effect of stem cell implantation for a wide variety of medical purposes.

Therefore, red light may be useful after surgery to stimulate stem cells to aid the repair of tissues and possibly organs.

Light at certain wavelengths has also been shown to coax stem cells to repair teeth, so red light therapy could soon revolutionize dental treatments. Indeed, some progressive dental clinics now offer red light therapy as an alternative to conventional drug and drill treatments.

Red light therapy has been shown to stimulate mesenchymal stem cells in the bone marrow to enhance their capacity to infiltrate the brain.

This has implications for healing degenerative conditions such as dementia, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s disease , currently lacking any orthodox treatment solution.

Where Did Red Light Therapy Come From?

Red light therapy has become a popular natural health intervention, both in professional settings and with home devices.

Light therapy technology has been used in medicine for decades, and NASA experimented with red light therapy use in space in the 1980s and 1990s. In the last 10–20 years, red light therapy has become more widely used thanks to breakthroughs in LED lighting technology that have made affordable home devices possible.

Major advances in clinical light therapy research, and increased public interest in natural health technologies, have also contributed to the growing use and popularity of red light therapy.

In 2016, Kaiyan Medical was the first red light therapy manufacturer to offer affordable, medical-grade devices to consumers for convenient, at-home use.

Relieve Pain And Discomfort

In humans, photobiomodulation is reportedly effective against various pain conditions, including mucositis, carpal tunnel syndrome, orthodontic pain, temporomandibular joint pain, neck pain, neuropathic pain from amputation, and menstrual cramps.

Red light therapy significantly reduces the severity of pain hypersensitivity while improving sensorimotor function.

These improvements are preceded by an anti-inflammatory microglia/macrophage cell population in the injury zone, thereby providing a lasting pain relief effect.

Red light therapy has been shown to yield effective pain relief via the modulation of multiple mechanisms:

  • Inhibitory cyclooxygenase and prostaglandins
  • Modulating nerve transmission
  • Increasing endorphins serotonin release
  • Stimulating metabolism
  • Activating peripheral opioid receptors
Repair Skin

Red light therapy is used for the rapid and safe healing of wounds from burns, surgery incisions, scars, diabetic neuropathy, ulcers, and bedsores.

Faster and better wound healing was one of NASA’s original findings and one of the key recognized uses for this technology. Red and near-infrared light promote beneficial effects during all four phases of the wound-healing process:

  • Coagulation
  • Inflammation
  • Migration
  • Remodeling

These processes are regulated by many growth factors connected with nitric oxide (NO) signaling release, which is modulated by light energy.

A major typical inhibiting factor for the body’s ability to recover from a wound is low oxygen flow. Therefore, the unique ability of red light to increase oxygen flow to the affected area has a massive effect on the healing process.

By reducing inflammation, oxygenation of the area, and formation of new blood vessels, a rapid healing process unfolds with less pain and scarring.

Red light energy may also reduce or prevent the need for pharmaceutical painkiller medication during the healing process.

Revive Immunity

If your body is energized on a cellular level and communication between the organ systems is efficient, your body will naturally develop disease resistance.

Your immune defense works to fend off bacteria and viruses all the time. Red light therapy boosts this system in several ways.

It releases nitric oxide and melatonin, which are involved in DNA repair and have a powerful antimicrobial effect.

It also works through a process known as hormesis. When red and near-infrared light is beamed into cells, it causes mild metabolic stress, which results in cells engaging their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant response.

In this way, the body is primed and ready to respond better to infections. Boosted immunity is also a natural consequence of other systemic effects of red light therapy.

Studies have shown a variety of benefits to the immune system:

  • Improved melatonin production
  • Improved antioxidant production
  • Increased micro-circulation enabling the transportation of immune cells.
  • Promotes activity in the lymph nodes
  • Increased NO levels
  • Better flow of neurotransmitters
  • Boosted collagen and elastin production
  • The more efficient function of cells and organelles
  • Boosts T cells pre-operatively
  • Improved thyroid function
Reduce Inflammation

Inflammation can be acute and topical ( short-lived, caused by accidents, sprains, and infections ), chronic and general ( long-term, caused by persistent conditions ).

While acute inflammation is a healthy physical healing response, chronic and general inflammation can be detrimental to health and often goes undetected.

Currently, the main treatment for inflammation in the body is NSAID or steroid drugs, both of which have side effects and disrupt the body's healing process. Red light therapy stimulates the body to activate its own healing mechanism, dramatically reducing the health risks associated with long term drug use.

Red light therapy works by decreasing the number of inflammatory cells, increasing fibroblast proliferation ( the cell that synthesizes the extra-cellular matrix and collagen ), stimulating angiogenesis ( the formation of new blood vessels ), and activating the body’s innate anti-inflammatory, antioxidant defenses.

The following conditions, associated with chronic and acute inflammation, are currently being investigated as highly promising targets for red light therapy.

  • Arthritis
  • Asthma
  • Sinusitis
  • Muscular sprains
  • Fibro-myalgia
  • Neuron inflammatory disorders such as Alzheimer’s
  • Irritable bowel syndrome and colitis
  • Rheumatic conditions
Regain Performance

Red light therapy has become a hot topic in sports and performance. Not only is it safe and non-toxic-it yields rapid and lasting results in many areas of application.

Besides the overwhelmingly beneficial effects on health overall, red light therapy supports muscle growth and repair by increasing the amount of ATP available, which allows for better performance and faster recovery.

Red light therapy used before training is known to prepare and strengthen the body and physical exertion to help with recovery.

Documented effects from red light therapy include:

  • Reducing DOMS ( Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness )
  • Greater endurance and performance
  • Improving sleep quality
  • Increasing sexual function and libido ( Including Testosterone )
  • Aiding weight loss
  • Boosting cognitive function
  • Reversing skin aging
  • Reducing cellulite
Red Light Therapy for Depression and Seasonal Affective Disorder

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that impacts at least 5% of Americans, especially in the winter months, when natural light exposure is lowest. SAD is also called seasonal depression, winter depression, or the winter blues.

Some people treat SAD symptoms with treatment options like bright white light therapies that mimic the sun’s light intensity at a bright time of day.

More researchers and physicians have used natural light treatments like red light therapy to help with natural light deficiency and the winter blues in recent years in conjunction with antidepressant medication and psychotherapy.

Who Uses Red Light Therapy?

In addition to the growing number of people using red light therapy devices in their home, red light therapy systems can be found in many professional and clinical settings:

Skincare Professionals: Red light therapy is a popular skin treatment among Hollywood celebrities for anti-aging, and it’s used by leading skincare professionals like estheticians and dermatologists to treat skin conditions and promote collagen production.

Health Practitioners: Red light therapy is an emerging subspecialty of medicine in a wide range of fields. From oncologists treating cancer side effects, to dentists reducing oral inflammation, to physicians treating mental health conditions, red light therapy is becoming more widespread in clinical practice.

Natural Health Experts: Leading voices in natural health and wellness like Dr. Sarah Ballantyne, Dave Asprey, and Ben Greenfield use red light therapy. So do Paleo and Keto health experts like Mark Sisson, Dr. Anthony Gustin, Luke Storey, and Robb Wolf.

Sports Medicine Pros: Light therapy companies work side by side with the National Association of Sports Medicine (NASM), and red light therapy is used to heal sports injuries by sports medicine professionals across the globe. Including the top trainers and doctors on the PGA Tour, like Dr. Troy Van Biezen and Dr. Ara Suppiah.

Elite Pro Athletes: Red light therapy is a popular training tool across pro sports, from NFL stars like Patrick Peterson, to UFC champs like Anthony Pettis, to gold medal gymnast Sanne Wevers.

Fitness & Training: World-class personal trainers like Lacey Stone and Jorge Cruise use red light therapy to both enhance performance and improve the muscle recovery process.

Supportive Cancer Care: The Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) recommends red light therapy for the treatment of oral mucositis (OM), a common and debilitating symptom of cancer treatment.

Sources and References:

Klepeis N., Nelson W., Ott W., Robinson J., Tsang A., Switzer P., Behar J., Hern S., Engelmann W. “The National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS): a resource for assessing exposure to environmental pollutants”. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 2001.

Hamblin M. “Mechanisms and applications of the anti-inflammatory effects of photobiomodulation.” AIMS Biophys. 2017.

LED Lights Used in Plant Growth Experiments for Deep Space Missions. NASA.

Gál P,  Stausholm MB, et al. Should open excisions and sutured incisions be treated differently? A review and meta-analysis of animal wound models following low-level laser therapy. Lasers in Medical Science. 2018 Aug.

John Foley, David B Vasily, et al. 830 nm light-emitting diode (led) phototherapy significantly reduced return-to-play in injured university athletes: a pilot study. Laser Therapy. 2016 Mar.

Kim HK, Choi JH. Effects of radiofrequency, electroacupuncture, and low-level laser therapy on the wrinkles and moisture content of the forehead, eyes, and cheek. Journal of Physical Therapy Science. 2017 February.

Wunsch A and Matuschka K. A Controlled Trial to Determine the Efficacy of Red and Near-Infrared Light Treatment in Patient Satisfaction, Reduction of Fine Lines, Wrinkles, Skin Roughness, and Intradermal Collagen Density Increase. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. Feb 2014.

Barolet D, Roberge CJ, et al. Regulation of skin collagen metabolism in vitro using a pulsed 660 nm LED light source: clinical correlation with a single-blinded study. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 2009 December.

Morita T., Tokura H. “ Effects of lights of different color temperature on the nocturnal changes in core temperature and melatonin in humans” Journal of Physiological Anthropology. 1996, Sept.

Naeser M., Zafonte R, Krengel MH, Martin PI,  Frazier J, Hamblin MR, Knight JA, Meehan WP, Baker EH. “Significant improvements in cognitive performance post-transcranial, red/near-infrared light-emitting diode treatments in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: open-protocol study”  Journal of Neurotrauma. 2014, June.

Liu KH, Liu D, et al. “Comparative effectiveness of low-level laser therapy for adult androgenic alopecia: a system review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.” Lasers in Medical Science. 2019 Aug.

Gupta AK, Mays RR, et al. “Efficacy of non-surgical treatments for androgenetic alopecia: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.” JEADV. 2018 Dec.

Afifi L, Maranda EL, et al. “Low-level laser therapy as a treatment for androgenetic alopecia.” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. 2017 Jan.

Hofling DB, Chavantes MC, et al. Low-level laser in the treatment of patients with hypothyroidism induced by chronic autoimmune thyroiditis: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. May 2013.

Hofling DB, Chavantes MC, et al. Assessment of the effects of low-level laser therapy on the thyroid vascularization of patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism by color Doppler ultrasound. ISRN Endocrinology. 2012.

Hofling DB, Chavantes MC, et al. Low-level laser therapy in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis: a pilot study. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. 2010 Aug.

Vladimirovich Moskvin S., Ivanovich Apolikhin O. Effectiveness of low level laser therapy for treating male infertility. Biomedicine (Taipei). 2018 June.

Ban Frangez H., Frangez I., Verdenik I., Jansa V., Virant Klun I. Photobiomodulation with light-emitting diodes improves sperm motility in men with asthenozoospermia. Laser in Medical Science, 2015 Jan.

Salman Yazdi, R., Bakhshi, S., Jannat Alipoor, F. et al. Effect of 830-nm diode laser irradiation on human sperm motility. Lasers Med Sci. 2014.

Chow KW, Preece D, Burns MW. Effect of red light on optically trapped spermatozoa. Biomedical Optics Express. 2017 Aug.

Preece D., Chow KW, Gomez-Godinez V., Gustafson K., et al. Red light improves spermatozoa motility and does not induce oxidative DNA damage. Scientific Reports. 2017 Apr.

American Psychiatric Association

Cassano P, Petrie SR, et al. Transcranial Photobiomodulation for the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder. The ELATED-2 Pilot Trial. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2018 October.

Barrett DW, et al. Transcranial infrared laser stimulation produces beneficial cognitive and emotional effects in humans. 2013 Jan.

Blanco NJ, Maddox WT, Gonzalez-Lima F. Improving executive function using transcranial infrared laser stimulation. Journal of Neuropsychology. 2017 Mar.

Paolillo FR, Borghi-Silva A, et al. New treatment of cellulite with infrared-LED illumination applied during high-intensity treadmill training. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2011 Aug;13(4):166-71.

Caruso-Davis MK, Guillot TS, Podichetty VK, Mashtalir N, Dhurandhar NV, Dubuisson O, Yu Y. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy for body contouring and spot fat reduction. Obes Surg. 2011. Jun;21(6):722-9.

Jackson RF, Dedo DD, Roche GC, et al. Low-level laser therapy as a non-invasive approach for body contouring: a randomized, controlled study. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. Dec 2009;41(10):99-809.

McRae E and Boris J. Independent evaluation of low-level laser therapy at 635 nm for non-invasive body contouring of the waist, hips, and thighs. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. Jan 2013.

Avci P, Gupta A, et al. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) in skin: stimulating, healing, restoring. Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery. Mar 2013; 32(1): 41-52.

Your Baby, Jaundice, and Light Therapy

Bilirubin is a yellow substance that comes from the normal breakdown of red blood cells. The liver removes bilirubin from the blood and passes it into the bowels so it can leave the body.

A newborn baby’s liver does not remove bilirubin, as well as an adult, does. Jaundice happens when bilirubin builds up faster than the liver can break it down and pass it from the body.

Most types of jaundice go away on their own. Others need treatment to lower bilirubin levels.

What Causes Jaundice?

Jaundice can be caused by different problems:

  • Physiological jaundice: The most common cause of newborn jaundice and occurs in more than 50% of babies. Because the baby has an immature liver. Jaundice first appears at 2 to 3 days of age. It usually disappears by 1 to 2 weeks of age, and the levels of bilirubin are harmless.
  • Breastfeeding jaundice: Breastfeeding jaundice may occur when your baby does not drink enough breast milk. It occurs in 5% to 10% of newborns.
  • Breast-milk jaundice: Breast-milk jaundice occurs in 1% to 2% of breast-fed babies. It is caused by a special substance that some mothers produce in their milk. This substance causes the baby’s intestine to absorb more bilirubin back into his body than normal. This type of jaundice starts at 4 to 7 days of age. It may last 3 to 10 weeks. It is not harmful.
  • Blood group incompatibility (Rh or ABO problems): If a baby and mother have different blood types, sometimes the mother produces antibodies that destroy the newborn’s red blood cells. This causes a sudden buildup of bilirubin in the baby’s blood. This serious type of jaundice usually begins during the first 24 hours of life. Rh problems formerly caused the most severe form of jaundice.

How Is Jaundice Diagnosed?

Doctors can tell if a baby has jaundice based on the yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes. Usually, all newborns are checked for jaundice before leaving the hospital or birth center.

Babies with jaundice will get a blood test to check bilirubin levels. Sometimes, a light machine that measures bilirubin in the skin is used. But if the level is high, a blood test must confirm the result.

High bilirubin levels can lead to serious problems. So doctors carefully watch babies with jaundice.

Treatments for Jaundice

Some types of jaundice will disappear within a week or two without treatment. Other babies will require treatment because of the severity of jaundice.

Light treatment is the process of using light to eliminate bilirubin in the blood. The baby’s skin and blood absorb these light waves. These light waves are absorbed by your baby’s skin and blood and change bilirubin into products, which can pass through their system.

For many years, phototherapy treatment in the hospital has been provided by a row of lights or a spotlight suspended at a distance form a baby. This would provide light shining directly on an undressed baby (with a diaper on) whose eyes would need protection from the light with soft eye patches applied. Today, advancements in technology have led to a new phototherapy system that gives effective treatment without the inconveniences of conventional phototherapy treatment.