Infographic: What is Red Light Therapy?

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Light Therapy & Sleep Quality: The Secret of the Chinese Female Basketball Players

Good sleep is a prerequisite for optimal performance. Given that people spend about one-third of their lives asleep, sleep has substantial development, daily functioning, and health. Perhaps no daytime behavior has been associated more closely with improved sleep than exercise. Researchers have shown that exercise serves as a positive function for sleep. Regular exercise consistently has been associated with better sleep. Moreover, the American Academy of Sleep Medicine considers physical exercise a modality of nonpharmacologic treatment for sleep disorders. When studying the influence of exercise on sleep, most investigators have compared acute and sedentary control treatments. In the study of regular moderate-intensity endurance exercise, researchers also provided compelling evidence that exercise promotes sleep.

However, exercise can negatively affect sleep quality. Exercising immediately before going to sleep is detrimental to sleep quality. Athletes train very hard to improve their on-field performances, but excessive training may decrease performance, known as overtraining syndrome. Researchers have shown that symptoms of overtraining indicate poor-quality sleep. Good sleep is an important recovery method for the prevention and treatment of overtraining in sports practice.

In a recent study in which red-light therapy (wavelength = 670 nm, light dose = 4 J/cm2) was used, researchers indicated that red light could restore glutathione redox balance upon toxicologic insult enhance both cytochrome c oxidase and energy production, all of which may be affected by melatonin. Melatonin is a neurohormone that is produced by the pineal gland and regulates sleep and circadian functions. No one knows whether sleep is regulated by melatonin after red-light irradiation in athletes. Researchers have demonstrated that phototherapy improves muscle regeneration after exercise. A red light could protect human erythrocytes in preserved diluted whole blood from the damage caused by experimental artificial heart-lung machines.

Participants

Twenty female athletes of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army team (age = 18.60 ± 3.60 years) participated in the study. All participants were healthy and were not using medications regularly or temporarily during the measurements. Athletes were excluded if they had participated in less than 80% of the scheduled team physical training and basketball sessions for the last 3 months or used any nutritional supplements or pharmacologic agents. All participants provided written informed consent, and the Ethical Committee approved the China Institute of Sport Science study.

Design

Participants were assigned randomly to either a red-light therapy intervention group (n = 10) or non–red-light therapy intervention group (placebo group, n = 10). Measurements were collected at preintervention (baseline) and postintervention (14 days). The exercise training schedule of the 2 groups was unchanged during the 14 days; the red-light treatment group used a red-light therapy instrument every night for total body irradiation for 30 minutes. The training routine of the athletes during the 14 intervention days included 12 exercise sessions with the following specifications: 2 hours of morning training, 2 hours of afternoon training, and no training on Sunday.

The red-light treatment participants lay in the supine position. Continuous illumination was performed using noncoherent red light from a whole-body red-light treatment machine-like Kaiyan’s red light therapy bed, with an average wavelength of 658 nm and a light dose of 30 J/cm2. The whole body received the phototherapy treatment. The placebo participants also lay in the supine position under the red-light device but did not receive any light illumination. All participants wore swimsuits to enhance irradiation from the device and were blind to the treatment.


Measurement

Sleep Quality

The Chinese version of the PSQI measured sleep quality. The 19-item measure assesses sleep quality and disturbances over a half-month time interval. The total PSQI score ranges from 0 to 21, and higher scores reflect poorer-quality sleep. The 7 items of this instrument measure several aspects of insomnia: difficulties with onset and maintenance of sleep, satisfaction with the current sleep pattern, interference with daily functioning, noticeable impairment attributed to sleep problems, degree of distress, and concern caused by any sleeping problems.

Cooper 12-Minute Run

Participants were instructed to complete as many laps as possible on a 400-m outdoor track during the 12-minute test period. Emphasis was placed on pacing oneself throughout the test. The test administrators counted the laps completed during the 12-minute test period while calling out the time elapsed at 3, 6, and 9 minutes and orally encouraging the participants. At the end of the 12-minute period, the test administrator instructed the participants to stop and used a measuring wheel to determine the fraction of the last lap completed by each participant. This distance was added to the distance determined by the number of laps completed to give the total distance covered during the test.

Serum Melatonin

In humans, the serum level of melatonin, derived mainly from the pineal gland, demonstrates a clear increase at night and a decrease during the day. Given that the masking effects of activities (e.g., exercise, sleep, and food intake) have little effect on the circulating melatonin level's daily pattern, melatonin secretion appears to directly reflect the function of the biological clock as a specific marker of the circadian rhythm.

Conclusions

The study has demonstrated that red-light illumination positively affected sleep quality and endurance performance variables in Chinese female basketball players. Based on previous studies, we can infer that red-light treatment contributes to increased melatonin secretion in the pineal gland and muscle regeneration. Although more studies involving phototherapy, sleep, and exercise performance need to be performed, red-light treatment is a possible nonpharmacologic and noninvasive therapy to prevent sleep disorders after training.

Acknowledgments

This research project was supported by the National Key Technologies R&D Program Fund of China (2006BAK37B06).

Originally from:


Red Light and the Sleep Quality and Endurance Performance of Chinese Female Basketball Players

Jiexiu Zhao, Ye Tian, Jinlei Nie, Jincheng Xu, Dongsen Liu

J Athl Train. 2012 Nov-Dec; 47(6): 673–678. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-47.6.08

PMCID: PMC3499892

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Wellness Gurus: Who's Turning to Light Therapy for Full-Body Treatment

Light therapy has many benefits, working from the inside, out. It not only helps with our appearance but also internal wellness — because who said beauty's just skin deep? 

Many people find themselves turning to this new form of treatment since it's non-invasive and comes with long-term positive effects — something most people aren't used to hearing. 

While outwardly, the skin smooths out, pores are reduced, wrinkles diminished, and collagen restored. Inwardly, light therapy works directly with our cells, generating an increase of ATP, the energy that fuels us. 

LED Light Therapy uses color wavelengths of visible light, each with specific skin benefits. Due to sun damage, aging, skin disorders, healthy skin cells are compromised and have a more difficult time renewing themselves normally.

But why are wellness gurus going crazy for light therapy? 

Light therapy is not that new; however, it's been gaining popularity due to its benefits, especially in the wellness industry. While everyone is eager to look younger, going under the knife is very invasive. Light therapy is not only effective and easy to use; it's non-invasive. The device needed for light therapy is usually a lamp or light therapy box. 

Is light therapy good for skin? Absolutely. And one of the best things next to the long-term effects is that light therapy can be used as laser light therapy at home. This is the most comfortable way of having the benefits of light therapy. Many celebrities themselves are opting for this route as opposed to invasive treatments.

Light is used as a source of energy, and our skin soaks it up, turning it into ATP (our life fuel). Cells reproducing faster and more efficiently brings the repair and rejuvenation of damaged cells, or, in the case of treating acne, kill bacteria. This stimulates the production of collagen and elastin, boosts circulation, and accelerates tissue repair. You simply lie underneath a light screen during the treatment while the LED light device.

What can light therapy be used for you may be wondering? It isn't only beneficial for your skin; it works directly within our cells, accelerating ATP production. This makes it helpful with overall health, physical and mental. Light exposure has also been linked to being a trigger of serotonin, the way natural light does as well. Not only does it trigger serotonin, but also melatonin, which helps regulate your sleep cycle. 

Luckily, instead of having to go to a doctor for your treatments, you have your own LED light therapy mask or device in the comfort of your home. Allowing wellness gurus and everyday people to enjoy the benefits of red light therapy. 

Light therapy devices work not only the face but as a full body treatment that can help with muscle tension and fascia. Fascia is the connecting tissue that holds every organ, blood vessel, bone, nerve fiber, and muscle in place.

Gwyneth Paltrow even explores on goop.com the many different appealing sides to it. “Light acts as a mild stressor on the body in a dose-dependent manner. We always consider stress to be a bad thing, but at low levels, stress can be good for us. It conditions our tissues and stimulates endogenous protective responses that prime us for either existing or future insult.”

Kourtney Kardashian has taken her LED light therapy mask to the public as well, promoting the device and its benefits. She enjoys both red and blue light treatments, often posting her with her at-home mask. She’s mentioned retinol use alongside the regular treatments, and other skin rejuvenating products. 

But more and more celebrities and wellness gurus are turning to light therapy for a full body treatment. Jessica Alba, alongside celebrities including Emma Stone, Chrissy Teigen, Lena Dunham, Kelly Rowland, and Real Housewives of New York City’s Carole Radziwill, have openly discussed red light therapy treatment. 

Many top skincare and wellness brands are turning to Kaiyan for their red light therapy device production. And though we produce devices that are incredibly effective, our devices are also MDA-certified and FDA-approved, giving you security in knowing your devices not only are effective but are safe. 

All About Fascia and Light Therapy

Fascia is a layer of fibrous tissue – or the connective tissue structure that covers muscles, muscle groups, blood vessels, and nerves, joining some structures while allowing others to slide over each other gently. It’s essentially a band or sheet of connective tissue, mainly collagen, under the skin that attaches, stabilizes, encloses, and separates muscles and other internal organs. We classify it by layer as superficial fascia, deep fascia, visceral or parietal fascia.

And its function is significant in the human body. Fascia is what distributes water equally into our carefully structured skin system. It's mainly made up of collagen and ground substance. So how can fascia be harmful?

In itself, fascia isn’t something bad – in fact, is essential to a healthy body; but if it isn't functioning optimally, things can take an ugly turn. The dysfunction of our fascial system can cause great discomfort and pain. Fascia is ideally supposed to move around as we do, and yet there are many things that cause problems with this tissue. 

When fascia is in a shortened position for prolonged periods due to such a lifestyle and overall poor posture, it will adapt – shortening and tightening. Fascial restrictions can also occur from trauma, infection, inflammation, or surgery. These changes affect our fascia's regular movement, creating tension points in our body, pain, applying pressure to surrounding tissues. Therefore, it causes restriction of movement due to the pain and tightening that occurs. So – how can light therapy help?


Light Therapy for Fascia Treatment

Light therapy consists of exposure to a filtered light with an intensity of up to 10,000 lux emitted by a particular lamp. Through light, it can help with a number of problems and specifically offers great benefits to the skin. 

Light therapy treatment for fascia can be done any time of the day; however, it is best done in the early hours of the morning, with a duration of up to 30 minutes, and must be repeated for long-term effect. 

Next to doing stretches and trying other forms of relaxation methods to release tension, fascia can be treated with light therapy. The skin reacts biochemically to light therapy, directly improving cell functions. ATP, our energy source, increases in production with light therapy treatment, resulting in improved cell rejuvenation. Light therapy benefits are that they reduce the discomfort of pain and inflammation by increasing blood flow and tissue repair mechanisms in the body.

Apart from a healthy functioning body, keeping your fascia rejuvenated also helps with appearance. Body symmetry and alignment improve, the blood flow increases, which gives faster exercise recovery, stretch marks and cellulite get reduced, scar tissue breaks down easier, and overall less pain and better performance in the day-to-day tasks. 

Repairing connective tissue such as fascia helps with muscle recovery, which is why light therapy is also used in sports. In the release of ATP, our muscles gain their power back. With light therapy, the recovery is sped up; sessions improve the time it usually takes for our cells to do it themselves. 

Plantar fasciitis is often created from strain at the ligament of the sole of the foot. It's a pain in our heels, and with light therapy, tissue repair is accelerated. Light therapy is an overall regenerating way of treating any issue related to connective tissues. 

Light therapy can also help with cellulite. In itself, cellulite isn't a health issue, but since light therapy helps collagen production, in the same way it helps fascia, it can also be effective with cellulite. With higher collagen levels, skin appears smoother and tightens, which can reduce the appearance of cellulite. 

Light therapy, while treating fascia, can also treat other issues. There are different ways to use light therapy and different settings for different outcomes. Infrared light is used for tissue repair, pain reduction, and similar problems. Red light resolves problems such as inflammation, tissue repair at the surface level, general pain relief as well. Blue light is ideal for combating bacterial issues that lead to our skin becoming acne-prone even when we're past that stage. 

That said, you want to make sure you are using the right red light device. At Kaiyan Medical, we have MDA-certified and FDA-approved laser light therapy devices that will make sure you’re receiving medical-grade light therapy treatment for your fascia and other issues. 

Infographic: What is Red Light Therapy?

The Perfect Pair: Light Therapy & PRP

Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Injections

In recent years, doctors have learned that the body has the ability to heal itself. Platelet-rich plasma therapy is a form of regenerative medicine that can harness those abilities and amplify the natural growth factors your body uses to heal tissue.

What is Plasma, and what are Platelets?

Plasma is the liquid portion of whole blood. It is composed largely of water and proteins, and it provides a medium for red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets to circulate through the body. Platelets, also called thrombocytes, are blood cells that cause blood clots and other necessary growth healing functions. Platelet activation plays a key role in the body’s natural healing process.

What is Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP), and what are PRP injections?

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy uses injections of a concentration of a patient’s own platelets to accelerate the healing of injured tendons, ligaments, muscles, and joints. In this way, PRP injections use each patient’s own healing system to improve musculoskeletal problems.

PRP injections are prepared by taking anywhere from one to a few tubes of your own blood and running it through a centrifuge to concentrate the platelets. These activated platelets are then injected directly into your injured or diseased body tissue. This releases growth factors that stimulate and increase the number of reparative cells your body produces.

Ultrasound imaging is sometimes used to guide the injection. The photographs below illustrate a PRP injection into a patient’s torn tendon. The ultrasound guidance is shown at the left, and the injection is shown at the right.

PRP harnesses the body’s own rejuvenating powers to stimulate hair growth naturally. The treatment involves drawing a small amount of blood from the patient’s arm. This blood is then spun in a centrifuge until the plasma is separated and growth factors and stem cells are extracted. This plasma, complete with growth factors and stem cells, is then injected into the patient’s scalp, stimulating hair growth.

Light Therapy

Red Light/Blue Light therapy uses light energy to stimulate hair growth. Red light/Blue Light therapy works using light delivered at specific therapeutic wavelengths within infrared and red-light spectrums. The energy from these lights stimulates the hair follicles so that they are constantly in the growth, or anagen, stage. This results in thicker, longer, and healthier hair.

Red light (630 nm) therapy stimulates ATP (cellular energy) production to stimulate hair follicle cells. It also increases blood flow to the hair root, which delivers more nutrients to the hair follicle cells. The increased blood flow is also thought to help flush away the damaging waste products that may affect hair growth.

Near-Infrared light (880 nm) therapy, which is an invisible light energy, promotes collagen and elastin production. It penetrates deeper into the scalp to help reduce inflammation, which causes thinning of hair.

Blue light (420 nm) therapy is especially effective for acne, penetrating molecules within the skin that cause P. acnes bacteria to form. These molecules react

Light & Water: The Fourth Phase

Water has three phases — gas, liquid, and solid; but inside Dr.Pollack’s lab, findings imply the presence of a surprisingly extensive fourth phase that occurs at interfaces. The formal name for this fourth phase is exclusion-zone water, aka EZ water. This finding may have profound implications for chemistry, physics, and biology.

The impact of surfaces on the contiguous aqueous phase is generally thought to extend no more than a few water-molecule layers. However, Dr.Pollack found that colloidal and molecular solutes are profoundly excluded from hydrophilic surfaces' vicinity to distances up to several hundred micrometers. Such large exclusion zones have been observed next to many different hydrophilic surfaces, and many diverse solutes are excluded. Hence, the exclusion phenomenon appears to be quite general.​​

Multiple methods have been applied to test whether the exclusion zone's physical properties differ from those of bulk water. NMR, infrared, and birefringence imaging, as well as measurements of electrical potential, viscosity, and UV-VIS and infrared-absorption spectra, collectively reveal that the solute-free zone is a physically distinct, ordered phase of water. It is much like a liquid crystal. It can co-exist essentially indefinitely with the contiguous solute-containing phase. Indeed, this unexpectedly extensive zone may be a candidate for the long-postulated “fourth phase” of water considered by earlier scientists.​

The energy responsible for building this charged, low entropy zone comes from light. We found that incident radiant energy, including UV, visible, and near-infrared wavelengths, induce exclusion-zone growth in a spectrally sensitive manner. IR is particularly effective. Five-minute radiation exposure at 3.1 µm (corresponding to OH stretch) causes an exclusion-zone-width increase of up to three times. Apparently, incident photons cause some change in bulk water that predisposes constituent molecules to reorganize and build the charged, ordered exclusion zone. How this occurs is under study.​

Photons from ordinary sunlight, then, may have an unexpectedly powerful effect that goes beyond mere heating. It may be that solar energy builds to order and separates charge between the near-surface exclusion zone and the bulk water beyond — the separation effectively creating a battery. This light-induced charge separation resembles the first step of photosynthesis. Indeed, this light-induced action would seem relevant not only for photosynthetic processes but also for all realms of nature involving water and interfaces.​

In conclusion, you can think of water as a battery. It’s excellent to absorb and store energy, and it’s good to transfer that energy from water molecule to water molecule (picture the ripples that happen when you drop a rock in a pond). The water molecules end up moving closer together to stabilize themselves; they become denser and more viscous and store energy in the form of a negative charge. This is EZ water. It’s like a charged battery — it’s carrying that valuable vibrational energy and is ready to deliver it. Using light therapy infrared devices from Kaiyan Medical, you can make your EZ water. The other alternative is to sunbathe naked under the sun, but that can lead you to sunburns, so we suggest our devices.

Skincare Professionals: Keep Your Clients Coming Back With Light Therapy Treatments That Work

If there’s one thing both women and men are trying to achieve, it’s turning back the hands of time. This explains why the anti-aging industry is projected to be worth $83.2 billion by 2027. With anti-aging on everyone’s mind, people are looking for the best ways to maintain their youthful glow and complexion. 

That said, many people interested in investing in anti-aging products are looking for non-invasive options that won’t require six weeks of post-surgical recovery time or monthly injections. While invasive options are anti-aging solutions, light therapy is an overlooked and underrated anti-aging therapy treatment in the skincare industry.

How Does Light Therapy Work? 

Light therapy uses varying wavelengths of light, emitting them onto the skin. The light penetrates through the layers of the skin, stimulating cellular regeneration and heals damaged tissues. While highly noted for its effectiveness for collagen production and tissue repair, it’s also ideal for reducing damage from acne, and eliminating wrinkles, inflammation, and age spots.  

While there are various light therapy devices on the market, some are standing out among the rest. Aduro's highly-rated 7+1 facial mask, eyewear, and handheld devices help combat skin imperfections and reduce aging signs. 

Aduro's light therapy uses different color and color combinations to target various skin conditions. In the 7+1 facial mask, each color offers a different treatment:

Red: increases collagen production for fuller and younger looking skin.

Blue: eliminates acne-casuing bacteria and reduces the appearance of acne.

Green: balances the skin’s complexion.

Yellow: reduces redness from inflammation and rosacea.

Orange: revitalizes the skin and adds glow.

Cyan: calms and soothes irritated skin.

Purple: promotes cell rejuvenation.

Infrared: amplifies desired results.

Users can either opt for one specific color or a combination of colors to tackle their skin’s needs.

“I originally purchased it to calm down my acne problem. And I am not getting any younger so all other lights, including wrinkle reducer will be a great help for my skin. The mask isn't heavy to wear. You can wear it while you are meditating, doing sit-down exercises and or other stuff.”

-Sandra G., verified buyer

As most people have more than one skin condition they’d like to treat, light therapy provides an all-in-one treatment for your clients. The 7+1 facial mask is intended for professional use, and gives equal coverage to the entire face. However, for clients looking for spot treatment on specific areas, handheld and eyewear devices can provide targeted treatment to areas with redness, inflammation, and discomfort.

“I purchased this for a recent flare of roceacea I got from using too many ordinary acids on my skin. I stripped the skin barrier and ended up with redness and red spots. I use the green, orange and blue and violet colour each morning for 1 minute each and notice skin evenness and definite reduction in roceacea I also use it after microneedling and it calm the red down.” 

- Sonia M., verified buyer

As more celebrities are turning to light therapy, people are becoming aware of its capabilities as a non-invasive treatment and are looking at light therapy as a solution to their skincare troubles. 

For clients looking for a relaxing facial experience with the added benefits of reducing their skincare imperfections, light therapy is the best solution. Kayian Medical produces medical-grade laser light devices for the skincare industry. All Kayian light therapy devices are MDA-certified and FDA-approved, ensuring your clients' high quality and results. Keep them coming back with skincare therapy that works.

How Light Therapy Enhances Physical Therapy Treatment

Though laser technology started with Albert Einstein, the technology didn’t evolve until the 1960’s when a laser prototype at Hughes Research Laboratories in Malibu, California, was first built. However, its purpose wasn’t for the medical industry; instead, for the military.

It eventually trickled down into Hollywood when Sci-Fi directors realized its potential for visual effects. But, of course, it didn’t take long for other fields to jump on the laser light bandwagon, including the medicine and rehabilitation industries. From there, the medical industry began to understand laser light’s impact on the human body when it came to healing and recovery.

Low-level (light) laser therapy (LLLT) is used to treat various conditions, including pain relief and inflammation. Over the past ten years, research and technological advancements have fine-tuned low-level light therapy, making the treatment highly effective in providing pain relief and healing treatment.

What is Low-Level Laser Light Therapy?

Before we talk about its capabilities, it’s essential to understand how it functions. Low-level laser light therapy is a non-invasive technique that gives the body a low dose of light to stimulate cellular healing. Laser light therapy targets the specific area in need to increase mobility by reducing pain and inflammation.

Low-level laser light therapy works through a process called photobiomodulation. During this process, the light is absorbed by the body’s tissue, where the cells respond with a physiological reaction, promoting cellular regeneration. The light stimulates cellular metabolism to promote cell growth and the healing of damaged cells.

How Laser Light Affects the Body

There are a couple of ways laser light therapy affects the body. Here’s what laser light therapy does for the body:

  1. Light energy is absorbed by melanin, hemoglobin, and water. The energy dissolves into heat, creating a soothing and warm sensation. The warming sensation helps patients feel relaxed.
  2. There’s an increase in ATP production in the mitochondria through light energy, the cell’s powerhouse. With increased ATP production, more energy is available for the healing process.
  3. Light energy aids with the release of nitric oxide, which enhances the circulation of damaged tissue. Increased circulation allows for improved oxygen exchange, nutrient exchange, and waste removal.
  4. Light energy releases crucial chemicals that help reduce inflammation.

So can laser light therapy be used alongside physical therapy? The answer is yes. In fact, the two treatments complement each other perfectly.

The Perfect Pair: Laser Light Therapy and Physical Therapy

With patients experiencing chronic or acute pain, the feeling of pain isn’t the main issue. However, patients can reduce pain and inflammation symptoms through laser light therapy while undergoing physical therapy treatments. Laser light therapy is ideal for pre and post-surgical procedures and during rehabilitation.

Patients undergoing laser light therapy will feel warm and soothing healing sensations as well as an immediate reduction in pain after treatment. By reducing pain, patients will improve their physical therapy performance and reduce their healing time. Ideally, four to six laser light therapy sessions are recommended to patients to receive the best results.

Whether you’re looking to improve your chiropractic, dermatology, medical or physical therapy practice, laser light therapy can provide your patients with the extra care they need to reduce chronic or acute pain and inflammation symptoms.

With many laser light products on the market, you want to make sure you’re investing in a medical-grade laser light device for your practice. Kaiyan Medical manufactures MDA-certified and FDA-approved laser light therapy devices, ideal for various medical and rehabilitation industries.

Why Chiropractors Love Light Therapy

Chiropractors Lead the Way

LED light therapy is not new to the medical industry and certainly not new to doctors of chiropractic.

Studied for decades, the use of low-level light therapy (LLLT) — both LED and laser — has been making its way into the medical mainstream in the U.S. since the 1990s. And chiropractors have taken the lead in the clinical use of LED light therapy and are advancing the use of this technology for new applications.

This is no surprise to industry professionals and medical providers because this technology is a perfect pairing to what chiropractors advocate and bring to the medical community: healthy, drug-free healing and pain management options that are highly efficacious. Compared to the high cost and side-effect spectrum of many pharmaceutical drugs, LED light therapy can be a cost-effective alternative to drugs and surgery.

LED light therapy has the ability to increase blood flow and lymphatic circulation, decrease pain, and stimulate many cellular processes that accelerate healing. Plus, it has a high safety level, no known negative side effects is easy to administer, and is non-invasive.

Because LED light therapy can provide pain relief, wound healing and address neuropathy discomfort and various musculoskeletal issues, it is a mainstay in many clinics. Some patients also purchase light therapy systems from their chiropractors for in-home use between office visits for long-term therapy needs such as chronic pain and neuropathy.

It is also an attractive option for new chiropractors just getting started because it can bring substantial benefits to their patients while offering a fast ROI.

How it Works

LEDs deliver wavelengths of incoherent (diffused) light to the body. LEDs are similar to laser diodes, but their light spreads out, unlike the highly focused beam of coherent light that emits from a laser. This more diffused light makes administration exceptionally safe.

This therapy is also known as photobiomodulation — meaning that light can produce a cellular change in the body. Photons of light stimulate the release of nitric oxide, which

is the body’s natural vasodilator, greatly increasing circulation in the local treatment area. Blood flow is increased to nerves and other tissues, improving tissue oxygenation that stimulates healing. This boost persists for several hours after a therapy session.

Research indicates that the benefits of LED light therapy include

  • Increased circulation
  • Decreased inflammation
  • Increased ATP production
  • Collagen production
  • Accelerated exercise recovery time
  • Increased relaxation
  • Decreased stress

LEDs have low power requirements and high efficiency with minimal heat production. Power levels are measured in mW/cm2 (milliwatts per centimeter squared). And LED lifetimes are rated up to 100,000 hours and can last for decades.

The most common device wavelengths are the following:

  • Near-infrared: Many LED therapy devices use the 800 nanometers (nm) range; however, infrared include a much wider spectrum with deep penetration up to 100 mm.
  • Red: 630 to 700 nm, with penetration up to 10 mm.
  • Blue: 405 to 470 nm, with penetration up to 3 mm (beneficial for skin and wound healing).
  • Pulsed frequency(s) or continuous wave devices provide timed sequences of light turning on and off during application, which is thought to accelerate change in the tissues.
  • Continuous-wave devices are always on; no frequency is added to the light.
Applications for Use

Light therapy is commonly used to treat acute and chronic joint pain in the neck, back, leg, shoulder, wrist, knee, and ankle. It can be helpful for arthritis pain, bruises, carpal tunnel syndrome, and musculoskeletal conditions. It is also used to treat skin conditions such as pressure ulcers, wound healing, and scar tissue reduction.

Even NASA has good things to say about light therapy. NASA issued a news release in December 2000, which stated that doctors at Navy Special Warfare Command centers in Norfolk, Virginia, and San Diego reported a 40 percent improvement in patients who had musculoskeletal training injuries treated with light-emitting diodes.1

There are distinct advantages to using LED therapy devices in your clinical practice. For example, Patients can be left unattended during therapy, maximizing staff resources. Large surface areas can be covered by the LED pad or panel, delivering therapeutic photons broadly and safely to the body's targeted area. And systems are generally portable and user friendly.

Moreover, LED light therapy can help you enter niche markets, such as peripheral neuropathy and brain injuries. These are areas where LED light therapy is appearing to be more effective than pharmaceutical approaches.

Brain injuries

An increasing number of scientific studies show expanded indications for LED light therapy to treat neurologic conditions, especially brain injuries and degeneration. The advanced research being done by Michael Hamblin, Ph.D., and his group and by Margaret A. Naeser, Ph.D., at Boston University demonstrates that LED light therapy can positively affect the brain. Naeser’s 2017 study with veterans showed significant improvement after 12 weeks of transcranial photobiomodulation.

Increased function, better sleep, fewer angry outbursts, and less anxiety and wandering were reported with no negative side effects.2

Preliminary brain studies conducted by other groups using transcranial LED light therapy show impressively improved brain blood flow verified before and after single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) brain scans. These brain studies have implications for patients presenting with such conditions as traumatic brain injury (TBI), PTSD, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, concussions, strokes, and depression.

Nearly all neurological disorders have one thing in common: diminished blood flow. And increased circulation and blood flow are precisely what LED light therapy promotes.

Peripheral Neuropathy

More than 3 million new cases of peripheral neuropathy are diagnosed each year in the U.S. alone. LED light therapy has shown significant results in relieving this condition's discomfort and improving sensation, as evidenced by several studies.

Adding LED light therapy systems can help you offer neuropathy therapy as a substantial part of your practice.

FDA Approved

LED light therapy devices have received FDA clearances that temporarily increase local circulation; and the temporary relief of pain, stiffness, and muscle spasms. Many practitioners are hopeful that the FDA will keep expanding clearances for this cutting-edge healing technology.

References
NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center. “NASA Space Technology Shines Light On Healing.” ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/ releases/2000/12/001219195848.htm. Published Dec. 2000. Accessed Jan. 2018.

Salmarche AE, Naeser MA, Ho KF, Hamblin MR, Lim L. Significant Improvement in Cognition in Mild to Moderately Severe Dementia Cases Treated with Transcranial Plus Intranasal Photobiomodulation:

Case Series Report. Photomed Laser Surg. 2017;5(8):432–441.

Fallah A, Mirzaei A, Gutknecht N, Demneh AS. Clinical effectiveness of low-level

laser treatment on peripheral somatosen- sory neuropathy. Lasers Med Sci. 2017 Apr;32(3):721–728.

Mandelbaum-Livnat MM, Almog M, Nissan M, Loeb E, Shapira Y, Rochkind

Photobiomodulation Triple Treatment in Peripheral Nerve Injury: Nerve and Muscle Response. Photomed Laser Surg. 2016;34(12):638–645.



Insomnia & the Dark Side of the Blue Light

Although it is environmentally friendly, blue light can affect your sleep and potentially cause disease. Until the advent of artificial lighting, the sun was the major lighting source, and people spent their evenings in (relative) darkness. Now, in much of the world, evenings are illuminated, and we take our easy access to all those lumens pretty much for granted.

But we may be paying the price for basking in all that light. At night, light throws the body’s biological clock — the circadian rhythm — out of whack. Sleep suffers. Worse, research shows that it may contribute to the causation of cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and obesity.

What is Blue Light?

Not all colors of light have the same effect. Blue wavelengths — which are beneficial during daylight hours because they boost attention, reaction times, and mood — seem to be the most disruptive at night. And the proliferation of electronics with screens and energy-efficient lighting increases our exposure to blue wavelengths, especially after sundown.

Light and Sleep

Everyone has slightly different circadian rhythms, but the average length is 24 and one-quarter hours. The circadian rhythm of people who stay up late is slightly longer, while earlier birds' rhythms fall short of 24 hours. Dr. Charles Czeisler of Harvard Medical School showed, in 1981, that daylight keeps a person’s internal clock aligned with the environment.

Is Nighttime Light Exposure Bad?

Some studies suggest a link between exposure to light at night, such as working the night shift, diabetes, heart disease, and obesity. That’s not proof that nighttime light exposure causes these conditions, nor is it clear why it could be bad for us.

A Harvard study shed a little bit of light on the possible connection to diabetes and possibly obesity. The researchers put 10 people on a schedule that gradually shifted the timing of their circadian rhythms. Their blood sugar levels increased, throwing them into a prediabetic state, and leptin levels, a hormone that leaves people feeling full after a meal, went down.

Exposure to light suppresses the secretion of melatonin, a hormone that influences circadian rhythms. Even dim light can interfere with a person’s circadian rhythm and melatonin secretion. A mere eight lux — a level of brightness exceeded by most table lamps and about twice that of a night light — effects, notes Stephen Lockley, a Harvard sleep researcher. Light at night is part of the reason so many people don’t get enough sleep, says Lockley, and researchers have linked short sleep to increased risk for depression, as well as diabetes and cardiovascular problems.

Effects of Blue Light and Sleep

While light of any kind can suppress melatonin's secretion, blue light at night does so more powerfully. Harvard researchers and their colleagues experimented comparing the effects of 6.5 hours of exposure to blue light to exposure to green light of comparable brightness. The blue light suppressed melatonin for about twice as long as the green light and shifted circadian rhythms by twice as much (3 hours vs. 1.5 hours).

In another blue light study, researchers at the University of Toronto compared the melatonin levels of people exposed to bright indoor light wearing blue-light-blocking goggles to people exposed to regular dim light without wearing goggles. The fact that the hormone levels were about the same in the two groups strengthens the hypothesis that blue light is a potent suppressor of melatonin. It also suggests that shift workers and night owls could protect themselves if they wore eyewear that blocks blue light. Inexpensive sunglasses with orange-tinted lenses block blue light, but they also block other colors, so they’re not suitable for use indoors at night. Glasses that block out only blue light can cost up to $80.

LED Blue Light Exposure

If blue light does have adverse health effects, then environmental concerns, and the quest for energy-efficient lighting, could be at odds with personal health. Those curlicue compact fluorescent lightbulbs and LED lights are much more energy-efficient than the old-fashioned incandescent lightbulbs we grew up with. But they also tend to produce more blue light.

The physics of fluorescent lights can’t be changed, but coatings inside the bulbs can produce a warmer, less blue light. LED lights are more efficient than fluorescent lights, but they also produce a fair amount of light in the blue spectrum. Richard Hansler, a light researcher at John Carroll University in Cleveland, notes that ordinary incandescent lights also produce some blue light, although less than most fluorescent lightbulbs.

Protect Yourself from Blue Light at Night
  • Use any of our red light devices for night lights. Red light is less likely to shift circadian rhythm and suppress melatonin.
  • Avoid looking at bright screens beginning two to three hours before bed.
  • If you work a night shift or use many electronic devices at night, consider wearing blue-blocking glasses or installing an app that filters the blue/green wavelength at night.
  • Expose yourself to lots of bright light during the day, which will boost your ability to sleep at night, as well as your mood and alertness during daylight.

50% Greater Growth in Muscles with Red Light Therapy

One study randomly divided participants into two separate groups for an 8-week training program. One group received a red light treatment before every training session, while the other group did the same training without the light treatment. They found that the group receiving the light therapy improved muscle growth 50% greater than those with muscle training alone. Pretty amazing, right?

Another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study using red and infrared light on the biceps demonstrated peak and average performance of more than 12% more than the control group. But while this is all very interesting, I’m sure you’re wondering whether Red Light Therapy is worth it and what it can do for YOU. First of all, I’m sure many of you appreciate the science breakdown, but some of you may not be able to follow, so here’s a simple explanation.

Scientists have discovered that our cells show an incredible response to light, but not just any light. Only in the 660–850 nanometer (nm) range which is the so-called red light range. This type of light energy penetrates deep into the skin, muscle, and joint tissue and stimulates ATP production, which you should think of as your body’s way of transporting energy to where it needs to go. More ATP means more efficient energy transfers in layman's terms, which translates to various benefits at a cellular level.

So, by exposing our body to the therapeutic red light, our cells receive this rejuvenating, anti-aging energy boost that enables them to perform every single function at a heightened level and now that you understand the science behind it, let’s a look at the 5 reasons why it might be a good idea for you to invest in this technology.

Increased Energy & Testosterone

Sometimes we feel lethargic and out of energy, like our body is constantly running on empty. Then you spend some time outside on a nice hot summer day, and you all of a sudden feel amazing? It’s because our bodies rely on light as a source of energy, helping our glands to regulate adrenaline, testosterone, metabolism, and several other functions, and it has been shown that Red Light Therapy can increase testosterone production, which in turn can increase overall energy levels and even improve peak muscle performance.

Reduced Muscle Recovery Time

After a challenging workout, your body works around the clock to repair and strengthen torn muscle fibers. We know this. We also know that nutrition plays a huge role in providing the body with the resources it needs for this process. But what most of you don’t know is that specific wavelengths of light play a role in this process. By enhancing mitochondrial function, red light has been proven to produce measurable gains in peak strength and reduced recovery times.

Faster Healing For Joint & Muscle Injuries

Injuries, repetitive motion, or aging, in general, can lead to severe joint pain and tissue damage. But the body’s natural healing response can be greatly accelerated by red and infrared light. Also, relief from pain, faster recovery times, and reduced arthritis symptoms are just a few more of Red Light Therapy's benefits. For bodybuilders, yes, Red Light is also great for reducing Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness or DOMS. After all, it’s a type of muscle tissue injury as well.

Healthier & Younger-Looking Skin

Red Light Therapy can improve skin clarity, tone, and texture, reduce fine lines, wrinkles, and puffy eyes, help fade scars, acne, and stretch marks, even enhance wound healing and circulation, simply by increasing the production of collagen and elastin.

Remember, collagen is a long-chain amino acid and the most abundant protein in the body. It’s responsible for giving skin its elasticity, hair its strength, and connective tissue its ability to hold everything in place. In fact, the collagen protein makes up 30% of the total protein in the body and 70% of the protein in the skin!

Now while collagen is beneficial to the entire body, it’s most noticeably beneficial to the skin. This is because as we age, the epidermic (or outer layer of skin) thins and loses elasticity in a process known as elastosis. As this happens, we tend to show more aging signs and acquire more wrinkles and stretch marks. But by restoring normal cellular function, because red light stimulates collagen production, red light therapy can help keep your skin looking healthier and younger for LONGER.

Stress Relief

You can’t argue that our minds and body are under constant stress because of our busy lives. Well, Red Light Therapy has been proven to calm our physical and mental state by reducing oxidative stress. Now, I cannot personally attest to that, simply because my stress is through the roof, and other times, I get my mind right and relax, but it makes sense. Oxidative stress is not just harmful to our physical health but also our mental state as well.


How to Integrate Light Therapy into your Lifestyle

Our lives are busier than ever, and even though red light therapy sounds like something that could significantly benefit you, we know you might be thinking: “when will I have time for red light therapy?” 

Part of the beauty of red light therapy is that you don't need to change your current routine or lifestyle to enjoy its benefits: if you're someone whose day is busy in front of a desk, you can turn the device on while you work; or if you have easy-going mornings but hectic afternoons, you can enjoy your morning coffee while using our red light therapy device. Or, you can turn on the panel while you’re unwinding with a movie in the evenings –– the options are endless.  

Red light therapy treatment isn’t supposed to take over your day and cause an inconvenience. With an at-home red light therapy device, you make the rules. 

That said, you may be wondering what’s the best time of day to use our red light therapy devices. Well, there are a couple of ways you can integrate red light therapy into your lifestyle. 

There are three main parts of the day: morning, midday, and evening. Though you’re able to use red light therapy any time of the day, some parts of the day can be more effective than others, particularly given your personal health and wellness needs. 

If you’re someone who’s suffering from a sleep disorder, then you may want to focus on using red light therapy during the mornings and evenings. For sleep conditions, using red light therapy around sunrise or sunset are the best times of the day. Why is that? 

It has to do with our biological circadian rhythm, which is the natural internal process that helps regulate your sleep cycle within a 24-hour day. To optimize your circadian rhythm and improve your sleep cycle, you need to sync with your natural sleep rhythm. By doing so, you reduce sleep inertia, insomnia, and other sleep disorders. 

When regulating your circadian cycle, your body releases a hormone called melatonin. This particular hormone is the highest in the blood at night and optimal for helping you fall asleep. When using red light therapy at night, it can help you enhance your natural melatonin production

When using red light therapy in the morning, exposure to light helps stop melatonin production, giving your body a natural energy boost. So, either time of the day––morning or night––can be an incredible time to help your body reset its circadian rhythm. 

You don’t need to schedule off your morning for red light therapy treatment. While you’re eating your breakfast or going through your emails, you simply turn on your red light therapy device and enjoy 10 to 15 minutes of treatment. 

Or, in the evenings when you’re cozied up on the course, washing the dishes, or sitting in bed with a book, turn on your red light therapy panel to help regulate your sleep cycle, mood, and overall health. 

If you can’t manage to use red light therapy in the morning or evening, you can always have a treatment in the afternoon, as well. If you’re dealing with a sleep disorder or seasonal depression, we recommend morning or evening treatment. However, midday treatment will also provide you with a load of benefits, including collagen production, decreasing symptoms of depression, improving sleep disorders, and non-seasonal Bipolar depressive episodes. 

Whatever the condition may be, whether it's a sleeping disorder, skin condition, or depression, Lunas red light therapy devices promote cellular healing from the inside out. What’s important is you find the time of the day that best suits your body’s needs. Everyone is different, so it’s important to find out what works for you and your unique routine and lifestyle.

PEMF Therapy in the Treatment of Osteoporosis and Similar Conditions

Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease, characterized by the reduction of bone mass and the skeletal architecture's impairment as a whole. Theron is essentially disease's definitions on anatomopathological criteria, which attribute to the skeleton particular characteristics of fragility, such as making bone prone to fracture even after minor trauma.

Skeletal fragility can be diagnosed, thanks to current sensitometric methods, even in the absence of symptoms and fractures. Being a condition that heightens the risk of fracture, but that does not make itself necessary for the definition of the disease, osteoporosis can evolve in a completely asymptomatic way for a long time, in some cases even for a lifetime.

The US FDA has approved pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) as a safe and effective treatment for nonunion of bone. Despite its clinical use, the mechanisms of action of electromagnetic stimulation of the skeleton have been elusive. Recently, cell membrane receptors have been identified as the site of action of PEMF and provide a mechanistic rationale for clinical use. This review highlights key processes in cell responses to PEMF as follows: (1) signal transduction through A2A and A3 adenosine cell membrane receptors and (2) dose-response effects on the synthesis of structural and signaling extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Through these actions, PEMF can increase bone and cartilage's structural integrityECM's structural integrity, enhance enhance repair, and alter the homeostatic balance of signaling cytokines, producing anti-inflammatory effects. PEMFs exert a pro anabolic effect on the bone and cartilage matrix and a chondroprotective effect counteracting inflammation's catabolic effects in the joint environment. Understanding of PEMF membrane targets and the specific intracellular pathways involved, culminating in the synthesis of ECM proteins and reducing inflammatory cytokines, should enhance confidence in the clinical use of PEMF and identify clinical conditions likely to be affected by PEMF exposure.

The musculoskeletal system is highly responsive to its physicochemical environment. Bone and cartilage cells respond to changes in mechanical stress, fluid flow, pH, and pO2 by altering their phenotype and expressing a range of signaling and structural molecules that result, in particular, in an altered extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and associated biomechanical properties. Response to mechanical stress is perhaps the best recognized and intuitively obvious skeletal environmental condition, facilitating adaptation and modeling to changing biomechanical and environmental requirements, perhaps through intermediary strain-associated signaling events. In addition to mechanical stress, skeletal tissues, both bone, and cartilage, demonstrate an exquisite sensitivity to electrical and electromagnetic stimulation.

Responses of skeletal cells to pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) have been exploited therapeutically with devices that expose tissues to appropriately configured fields to stimulate ECM synthesis for bone and cartilage repair. This review highlights key processes in cell responses to PEMF as follows: (1) signal transduction through cell membrane adenosine receptors (ARs), (2) the activation of osteoinductive pathways, and (3) the synthesis of skeletal ECM including structural and signaling molecules. These actions are reflected physiologically in the bone as the healing of fractures, osteotomies, nonunions, and joints, as the modulation of cartilage damage and reduction in catabolic and inflammatory cytokines in arthritis. Understanding the cellular responses to PEMF will inform clinical studies, may point to key issues that need further investigation, and will be relevant in promoting bone and cartilage repair, tissue engineering and regeneration in a repair mode, and damping inflammation in arthritis. Understanding the pathways of the activity of PEMFs provides a solid mechanistic basis for their clinical use.

There is strong evidence supporting a role for adenosine and its receptors in bone homeostasis and skeletal pathology, including osteoporosis and arthritis.4 Furthermore, adenosine, acting through the A2A receptor, inhibits osteoclast differentiation, and increases the rate of new bone formation in bone defects.5 A2A signaling also promotes the Wnt/β-catenin pathway regulating bone formation.6

Although the transmembrane signal recognition processes of PEMF are incompletely understood, the specific mechanism of interaction between PEMF and the cell membrane was reported by Varani et al.7 They identified for the first time that ARs were the main target of PEMF stimulation in inflammatory cells; ARs play a pivotal role in the regulation of inflammatory processes, with both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects.8 It has been demonstrated that PEMF exposure induces a notable increase in A2A and A3 AR density on the cell membrane of chondrocytes, synoviocytes, and osteoblasts8 (Figure 1). Notably, A1 and A2B receptors were not influenced by the same exposure conditions. Moreover, in the presence of the specific A2A receptor agonist, PEMF exposure synergized with the agonist and induced a notable increase in intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. On the contrary, the specific A2A receptor antagonist's presence blocked the effects of both the agonist and PEMF stimulation, suggesting that PEMFs specifically act through the activation of A2A ARs with a pharmacologic-like mechanism. The agonist activity of PEMF for the A2A and the A3 ARs is particularly relevant because it inhibits the NF-kB pathway, a key regulator of the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and several genes involved in responses to inflammation.9 Cohen et al. 10 showed in vivo that an experimental A2A agonist drug reduced cartilage damage in a rabbit model of septic arthritis of the knee. These observations formed the basis for the application of PEMF for chondroprotection of articular cartilage from the catabolic effects of joint inflammation, as discussed in more detail later.

Despite its clinical use, the mechanisms of action of electromagnetic stimulation of the skeleton have been elusive, and PEMF has been viewed as a “black box.” In the past 25 years, research has successfully identified cell membrane receptors and osteoinductive pathways as sites of action of PEMF and provides a mechanistic rationale for clinical use. Understanding of PEMF membrane targets and the specific intracellular and extracellular pathways involved, culminating in the synthesis of ECM proteins and reduction in inflammatory cytokines, should enhance confidence in the clinical use of PEMF and the identification of clinical conditions likely to be affected by PEMF exposure.

The biological effects of PEMF treatment and favorable effects on the skeletal system are the results of notable research efforts conducted internationally by the orthopedic community. They have attracted much interest from other medical specialties such as wound and tendon healing, rheumatology, and neurology that may be able to take advantage of the experiences developed with bone and cartilage treatments.

References

De Mattei M, Fini M, Setti S, et al.: Proteoglycan synthesis in bovine articular cartilage explants exposed to different low-frequency low-energy pulsed electromagnetic fields. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2007;15:163–168.

Parent D, Franco-Obregon A, Frohlich J, et al.: Enhancement of mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis with short-term low intensity pulsed electromagnetic fields. Sci Rep 2017;7:9421.

Aaron RK, Ciombor DM, Keeping H, Wang S, Capuano A, Polk C: Power frequency fields promote cell differentiation coincident with an increase in transforming growth factor-beta(1) expression. Bioelectromagnetics 1999;20:453–458.

Ham J, Evans BA: An emerging role for adenosine and its receptors in bone homeostasis. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2012;3:113.

Mediero A, Wilder T, Cronstein B: Adenosine receptors stimulate bone regeneration, in Biology and Pathology of Bone and Joint: Osteoclasts, Osteoblasts and Bone Remodeling. Boston, MA, ACR/ARP Annual Meeting, 2014, Abstract 19.

Borhani S, Corciulo C, Larranaga Vera A, Cronstein B: Signaling at adenosine A2A receptor (A2aR) in osteoblasts; crosstalk with Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, in Osteoarthritis and Joint Biology — Basic Science Poster I. Chicago, IL, ACR/ARP Annual Meeting, 2018, Abstract 1047.

Varani K, Gessi S, Merighi S, et al.: Effect of low-frequency electromagnetic fields on A2A adenosine receptors in human neutrophils. Br J Pharmacol 2002;136:57–66.

Varani K, Vincenzi F, Ravani A, et al.: Adenosine receptors as a biological pathway for the anti-inflammatory and beneficial effects of low-frequency low energy pulsed electromagnetic fields. Mediators Inflamm 2017;2017:2740963.

Massari L, Benazzo F, Falez F, et al.: Biophysical stimulation of bone and cartilage: State of the art and future perspectives. Int Orthop, 2019;43:539–551.

Cohen SB, Gill SS, Baer GS, Leo BM, Scheld WM, Diduch DR: Reducing joint destruction due to septic arthrosis using an adenosine2A receptor agonist. J Orthop Res 2004;22:427–435.

Aaron RK, Boyan B, Ciombor DM, Schwartz Z, Simon BJ: Stimulation of growth factor by electric and electromagnetic fields. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2004;419:30–37.

Aaron RK, Wang S, Ciombor DM: Upregulation of basal TGFß1 levels by EMF coincident with chondrogenesis — skeletal repair and tissue engineering implications. J Orthop Res 2002;20:233–240.

13. Zhou J, He H, Yang L, et al.: Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on bone mass and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway in ovariectomized rats. Arch Med Res 2012;43:274–282.

Lin CC, Lin RW, Chang CW, Wang GJ, Lai KA: Single-pulsed electromagnetic field therapy increases osteogenic differentiation through Wnt signaling pathway and sclerostin downregulation. Bioelectromagnetics 2015;36:494–505.

Cai J, Shao X, Yang Q, et al.: Pulsed electromagnetic fields modify the adverse effects of glucocorticoids on bone architecture, bone strength, and porous implant osseointegration rescuing bone-anabolic actions. Bone 2020;133:115266.

Zhai M, Jing D, Tong S, et al.: Pulsed electromagnetic fields promote in vitro osteoblastogenesis through a Wnt/beta-catenin signaling-associated mechanism. Bioelectromagnetics 2016;37:152–162.

Jing D, Li F, Jiang M, et al.: Pulsed electromagnetic fields improve bone microstructure and strength in ovariectomized rats through a Wnt/Lrp5/beta-catenin signaling-associated mechanism. PLoS One 2013;8:e79377.

Wu S, Yu Q, Lai A, Tian J: Pulsed electromagnetic field induces Ca(2+)-dependent osteoblastogenesis in C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal cells through the Wnt-Ca(2+)/Wnt-beta-catenin signaling pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018;503:715–721.

Pan Y, Dong Y, Hou W, et al.: Effects of PEMF on microcirculation and angiogenesis in a model of acute hindlimb ischemia in diabetic rats. Bioelectromagnetics 2013;34:180–188.

Tepper OM, Callaghan MJ, Chang EI, et al.: Electromagnetic fields increase in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis through endothelial release of FGF-2. FASEB J 2004;18:1231–1233.

Hopper RA, VerHalen JP, Tepper O, et al.: Osteoblasts stimulated with pulsed electromagnetic fields increase HUVEC proliferation via a VEGF-A independent mechanism. Bioelectromagnetics 2009;30:189–197.

Goto T, Fujioka M, Ishida M, Kuribayashi M, Ueshima K, Kubo T: Noninvasive up-regulation of angiopoietin-2 fibroblast growth factor-2 in bone marrow by pulsed electromagnetic field therapy. J Orthop Sci 2010;15:661–665.

Petecchia L, Sbrana F, Utzeri R, et al.: Electro-magnetic field promotes osteogenic differentiation of BM-hMSCs through a selective action on Ca(2+)-related mechanisms. Sci Rep 2015;5:13856.

Pro Athletes Harnessing the Power of Red Light

Originally from https://www.lunaspanel.com/post/pro-athletes-harnessing-the-power-of-red-light


Being a professional athlete is no joke, and when your body is a central part of your job, it needs to be very well taken care of. And even when athletes are doing all the right things to take care of their body, injuries are still widespread in professional sports; but it used to be that their career was over if an athlete was injured. But now, athletes can undergo surgery and pop back up on the court or field months later. How is that possible?

As most athletes know, a large portion of time is dedicated to repairing muscles and alleviating inflammation for the next game. Regardless of the sport, teams spend millions of dollars on professional physical therapists to guarantee their athletes receive the highest physical treatment standard.

The recovery process for an athlete is essential and a determining factor of how well they’ll perform during their careers. You’ll often hear the words “optimizing performance” when discussing the recovery process for athletes. Today, the recovery process isn’t just to heal an athlete but to naturally enhance their performance.

So, how do professional therapists optimize professional athletes’ performance and recovery? Well, red light therapy is turning out to be one of the most effective treatments for these high-performing individuals.

Professional trainers are always looking for natural ways to enhance their player’s performance. With light has proven to be a lead modality, many trainers and athletes use light therapy to enhance the body’s natural healing process. But how does it work?

When used, natural red light penetrates the skin and cells. When the light reaches the mitochondria, it stimulates the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is a natural energy currency in the human body. With an enhanced ATP production, cells in the muscle are optimized and repaired faster.

Hundreds of peer-reviewed clinical trials have backed up the results athletes see on the courts and fields. In 2015, researchers conducted a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials, and the results were astounding. They found that most clinical trials showed “significant improvement for the main measures related to performance,” including endurance and speed. And through this meta-analysis, it was concluded that “phototherapy (with lasers and LEDs) improves muscular performance and accelerates recovery when applied before exercise.”

However, red light therapy does more than recover muscle tissue. It also increases muscle strength, ultimately improving physical performance.

A 2016 study researched red light therapy on elite athletes and trained and untrained athletes. What was found was that red light therapy after training could increase muscle mass. So, not only does red light therapy accelerate the recovery process, but it also improves muscle strength.

But what about endurance? Being strong is only one aspect of being an athlete. Endurance is crucial when competing against an opponent. A triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial published in 2018 studied the effects of red light therapy on men and women undergoing endurance training on treadmills. It was found that red light therapy pre-exercise can “increase the time-to-exhaustion and oxygen uptake and also decrease the body fat in healthy volunteers when compared to placebo.”

Another study from 2018 completed by Brazilian researchers found that after their randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial on pro soccer players, those who underwent red light therapy stayed longer on the playing field. It was concluded that light therapy “…had a significant improvement in all the biochemical markers evaluated…pre-exercise [light] therapy can enhance performance and accelerate recovery…”.

Peer-reviewed clinical trials worldwide have all concluded the same thing: red light therapy works for increasing athletic performance levels. Luna’s red light therapy device can help professional athletes and the rest of us exercise regularly, recover from injuries, and improve our physical and muscular health.

Light Therapy - Stimulating Healing and Improving Bone Health

The body is naturally designed and made to be able to build newer bones when the need arises. Studies on animals and humans have shown that red and infrared light therapy greatly aids in healing breaks, fractures, and bone defects. In 2013, researchers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, studied the effects of red and near-infrared light on rat bones' bones' healing process. Upon a piece of bone being sliced from the upper leg in an “osteotomy” of 45 rats, the rats were split into three groups — Group 1 Received no light, the second group were administered red light (about 660–690 nm), and the third group was placed on exposure to near-infrared light (about 790- 830nm)

The study found “a significant increase in the degree of gray level (mineralization) in groups treated with the laser after 7 days” and “after 14 days, only the group treated with the laser therapy (red light and near-infrared light) in the infrared spectrum showed higher bone density.

Red light and near-infrared light have been shown to stimulate energy production in the bone cells, improve blood vessel formation, circulation, and blood flow to the affected area, regulate and decrease inflammation, increase bone growth factors, enhance the production of collagen and procollagen, which stimulates the growth of bone cells.

Because ATP production is interrupted in broken bones, and cells begin to die due to a lack of energy, the right kind of red light and near-infrared light therapy has shown increased bone formation and collagen deposition. It’s no wonder red light, and NIR is gaining so much momentum in sports teams among athletes. Many pro teams now use light therapy to speed recovery and get their players back in action after an injury, more every year. Red and near-infrared light wavelengths can penetrate deep into tissue and bone for all kinds of healing effects. Concentrated natural light stimulates the mitochondria in the cells, reducing oxidative stress and helping the body to produce more usable energy to power itself, regenerate, and heal.

Bone Density Benefits
  • Increases bone mineral density and bone structure: Preliminary research shows benefits for improving osteoporosis, including a boost in osteogenesis, increased stress load, and preserved vertebrae strength
  • Strengthens bones: Increases osteoblast proliferation, collagen deposition, and 3 bone neoformation when compared to bones not treated with red light, and increases maximum bone tolerance
  • Improves bone healing: Accelerates bone healing in extraction sites, bone fracture defects and distraction osteogenesis 5
  • Reduces swelling from bone injuries: A proven anti-inflammatory treatment indicated by the FDA that has been shown to curb swelling in facial bone fractures
  • Enhances overall bone health: Increases natural collagen production, which is essential to healthy bones and skin7
References
  1. Lasers Surg Med. 2010 Aug;42(6):519-26 - PubMed
  2. J Biol Chem. 2002 Apr 19;277(16):14221-6 - PubMed
  3. Lasers Surg Med. 2006 Jan;38(1):74-83 - PubMed
  4. Bone. 1988;9(2):73-9 - PubMed
  5. Nature. 2003 May 15;423(6937):337-42 - PubMed

Lighting the Way Back for Astronauts - Light Therapy & NASA

In 1993, Quantum Devices, Inc. (QDI), of Barneveld, Wisconsin, began developing the HEALS (High Emissivity Aluminiferous Light-emitting Substrate) technology high-intensity, solid-state LED lighting systems for NASA Space Shuttle plant growth experiments. The company evolved out of cooperative efforts with the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison — a NASA center for the Commercial Development of Space. Ronald W. Ignatius, QDI’s president, and chairman represented one of WCSAR’s industrial partners at the time. WCSAR was conducting research on light sources for promoting food growth within closed environments where humans would be present for a long duration, such as the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station.

With the support of WCSAR, Ignatius experimented with LEDs, which provide high-energy efficiency and virtually no heat, despite releasing waves of light 10 times brighter than the Sun. Ignatius admits that some scientists involved in the project were skeptical at first, thinking that the idea of using LEDs to promote plant growth was far-fetched. However, the experiments demonstrated that red LED wavelengths could boost the energy metabolism of cells to advance plant growth and photosynthesis. This finding prompted Ignatius to develop a line of LED products that emit the exact wavelength of light that plants use in photosynthesis.

“Our company gives credit to Dr. Ray Bula, the director of WCSAR, for having the foresight to go against the prevailing dogma of the time and design the first plant experiment using monochromatic light to grow lettuce plants,” Ignatius proclaims.

In 1989, Ignatius formed QDI to bring the salt grain-sized LEDs to market. In October 1995, the light sources made their Space Shuttle flight debut on the second U.S. Microgravity Laboratory Spacelab mission (STS-73, Columbia).

Growing

When NASA determined that red LEDs could grow plants in space, Marshall Space Flight Center awarded QDI several Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to investigate the broad-spectrum diodes' effectiveness in medical applications. The contracts, issued from 1995 to 1998, focused on increasing energy inside human cells. NASA hoped that the LEDs would yield medical benefits on Earth and stem bone and muscle mass loss in astronauts, which occurs during long periods of weightlessness. (In space, the lack of gravity keeps human cells from growing naturally.) Furthermore, since wounds are slow to heal in a microgravity environment, LED therapy could accelerate healing and keep what would be termed as minor wounds on Earth from becoming mission-catastrophic in space.

In addition to promoting cell growth, the red LEDs are capable of activating light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs that, when injected intravenously, could destroy cancer cells while leaving surrounding tissue virtually untouched. The technique, approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in laboratory and human trials, is known as Photodynamic Therapy.

With the SBIR assistance from NASA, QDI set out to alter a surgical probe that could emit long waves of red light to stimulate a Benzoporphyrin-derivative drug called Photofrin, which delivers fewer post-operative side effects than comparable drugs. Ignatius also developed a friendly and successful working relationship with Dr. Harry Whelan, pediatric neurology and director of hyperbaric medicine at the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. The two had met after Ignatius came across a newspaper article highlighting Whelan’s ground-breaking brain cancer surgery technique, which uses drugs stimulated by laser lights to accelerate healing. Accordingly, QDI provided more than $1.25 million from its SBIR contracts to support Whelan’s pioneering photobiomodulation research and bring him on board to help improve the surgical probe.

Collectively, Ignatius, Whelan, and researchers from NASA successfully altered the probe for pediatric brain tumors and the prevention of oral mucositis (a common side effect of chemotherapy and radiation treatments) in pediatric bone marrow transplant patients at the Medical College of Wisconsin. In May 1998, a 20-year-old female became the first patient to undergo surgery with the modified probe. The young woman had endured six brain surgeries and chemotherapy and radiation treatments over a span of 10 years, but her aggressive cancer kept coming back. Having exhausted all of her conventional treatment options, she turned to the NASA-sponsored Photodynamic Therapy technology.

During the procedure, surgeons excised as much of the recurring brain tumor as they could then injected the light-activated Photofrin into her bloodstream and inserted the LED probe into the remaining tumor tissue. The probe, which casts long wavelengths that generate less heat and penetrate deeper into tissue than the shorter wavelengths of traditional medical lasers, proved to be both safe and effective, as the tumor never returned, and the patient recovered with no complications. A second operation that took place 3 months later on a male patient was also deemed successful by Whelan and his Medical College of Wisconsin surgeons' team.

FDA-approved clinical trials continued at several other facilities over the next 3 years, including the Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, New York; Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke’s Medical Center in Chicago; and the Instituto de Oncologia Pediatrica in Sao Paulo, Brazil. QDI became recognized as a U.S. Space Foundation “Space Technology Hall of Fame” award recipient in 2000 and a Marshall Space Flight Center “Hallmark of Success” in 2004.

Product Outcome

The positive clinical trial results and continued support from NASA and follow-on research grants from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency helped QDI and the Medical College of Wisconsin fully transition space technology into a new, non-invasive medical device. The WARP 10 (Warfighter Accelerated Recovery by Photobiomodulation) is a high-intensity, hand-held, portable LED unit intended for the temporary relief of minor muscle and joint pain, arthritis, stiffness, and muscle spasms. It also promotes the relaxation of muscle tissue and increases local blood circulation. Unlike the surgical probe, the WARP 10 does not require intravenous medicine; instead, the unit can be placed directly on the skin where treatment is to occur.

The WARP 10 was designed to aid armed forces personnel on the front lines with immediate first aid care for minor injuries and pain, thereby improving combat endurance. The “soldier self-care” device produces 80 times more photon energy than a 250-Watt heat lamp, yet it remains cool to the touch. The power advantage reduces the time required for each therapeutic dose and provides for faster multi-dose exposures when needed, without the harmful effects of ultraviolet solar radiation. The U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Navy are currently issuing WARP 10 to crews on submarines and Special Forces operations.

QDI has introduced an FDA-approved consumer version sharing the same power and properties of the military model as an alternative to the cost and complications associated with the overuse of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for persistent pain relief. According to a Mayo Clinic study, adverse events associated with the use of NSAIDs are reported more frequently to the FDA than such events associated with any other group of drugs. Furthermore, conservative calculations for the United States estimate that approximately 107,000 patients are hospitalized each year for NSAID-related gastrointestinal complications. At least 16,500 NSAID-related deaths occur annually among arthritis patients alone, according to compiled research.

References

Beauvoit B., Evans S.M., Jenkins T.W., Miller E.E., Chance B., “Contribution of the Mitochondrial Compartment to the OpticalProperties of the Rat Liver: A Theoretical and Practical Approach,” Analytical Biochemistry 226, 167-174 (1995).Beauvoit B., Kitai T., Chance B., “Correlation between the Light Scattering and the Mitochondrial Content of Normal Tissues andTransplantable Rodent Tumors,” Biophysical Journal 67, 2501-25 10 (1994).Chance B., Nioka S., Kent J., McCully K., Fountain M., Greenfield R., Holtom G., “Time-Resolved Spectroscopy of Hemoglobin andMyoglobin in Resting and Ischemic Muscle,” Analytical Biochemistry 174, 698-707 (1988)Conlan M.J., Rapley J.W., Cobb C.M., “Biostimulation of wound healing by low-energy laser irradiation,” J.Clin. Periodont. 23, 492-496 (1996).Eggert H.R., Blazek V., “Optical Properties of Normal Human Brain Tissues In The Spectral Range of 400 to 2500 nm,” Advances inExperimental Medicine & Biology 333, 47-55 (1993).Karu T., “Photochemical Effects Upon the Cornea, Skin and Other Tissues (Photobiology Of Low-Power Laser Effects,” HlthPhysics 56, 69 1-704 (1989).Lubart R., Friedman H., Sinyakov M., Cohen N., Breitbart H., “Changes in Calcium Transport in Mammalian Sperm Mitochondriaand Plasma Membranes Caused by 780 nm Irradiation,” Lasers in Surg & Med 21, 493-499 (1997).Lubart R., Wollman Y., Friedman H., Rochkind S. Laulicht L., “Effects of visible and near-infrared lasers on cell cultures,” Journalof Photochemistry & Photobiology 12(3), 305-3 10 (1992).Salansky N., “Low energy photon therapy for wound healing.” Intnl Med Instr, Canadian Defense Ministry, PersonalCommunication. (1998).Schmidt M.H., Bajic D.M., Reichert K.W. II, Martin T.S., Meyer G.A., Whelan H.T., “Light –emitting diodes as a light source forintra-operative photodynamic therapy.” Neurosurg 38(3), 552-556 (1996).Schmidt M.H., Reichert K.W. II, Ozker K., Meyer G.A., Donohoe D.L., Bajic D.M., Whelan N. T., Whelan H. T., “PreclinicalEvaluation of Benzoporphyrin Derivative Combined with a Light-Emitting Diode Array for Photodynamic Therapy ofBrain Tumors.” Pediatr Neurosurg 30, 225-231 (1999).Whelan H.T., Schmidt M.H., Segura A.D., McAuliffe T.L., Bajic D.M., Murray K.J., Moulder J.E., Strother D.R., Thomas J.P., MeyerG.A., “The role of photodynamic therapy in posterior fossa brain tumors: A pre-clinical study in a canine glioma model.”Journal of Neurosurgery 79(4), 562-8 (1993).5Whelan H.T., Houle J.M., Donohoe D.L., Bajic D.M., Schmidt M.H., Reichert K.W., Weyenberg G.T., Larson D.L., Meyer G.A.,Caviness J.A., “Medical Applications of Space Light-Emitting Diode Technology—Space Station and Beyond.” SpaceTech. & App Int’l Forum 458, 3-15 (1999).Yu W., Naim J.O., Lanzafame R.J., “The Effect Of Laser Irradiation On The Release Of bFGF From 3T3 Fibroblasts.”Photochemistry & Photobiology 59, 167-70 (1994).

Red Light Therapy and Quarantine

If there’s one thing most of us likely haven’t had enough of in 2020, it’s natural light. The pandemic has changed our lives in so many ways, particularly concerning the drastic increase in the amount of time spent indoors and home. Most of us are stationed at our computers all day, only to log off just in time for dinner. At that point, it’s already dark, and we’re likely ready to decompress and relax.

Throw a lockdown on top of this, and we’re lucky if we even get to see the sky that day.

Our current lifestyle, specifically in quarantine, makes natural daylight a rare sight, and this can be extremely detrimental to our mental and physical health — but why?

Without a sufficient amount of light, your circadian rhythm becomes out of sync, as does our hormone production levels. And if you’ve been experiencing poor sleep, lack of light is likely the reason why. A study from the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine found that employees who work near windows receive twice as much sunlight as those who don’t receive natural light — they also receive 46 more minutes of sleep on average.

So: darkness isn’t the determiner of sleep; rather, light is.

It’s clear how our daily routines have become more indoors-bound, yet there seems to be no way to reduce these light-limiting circumstances. The lack of sleep disrupted hormones, and constant uncertainty has a severe effect on our bodies, which we’re all experiencing during this time. So, how do we overcome these health concerns with limited options?

This is where red light therapy plays a crucial role in improving health. With the average American spending 90 percent of their time indoors, red light therapy allows you to receive light in your own environment. But just because we’re staying at home due to quarantine doesn’t mean we can’t supplement the natural light we need.

Red light therapy works by increasing energy production at a cellular level. The more energy our cells produce, the better our bodies feel as there’s sufficient blood flow. However, there’s more to it than just feeling good.

For people working in front of the computer all day, carpal tunnel syndrome, muscle fatigue, and arthritis are serious concerns. And since we’re working from home, our screen time has significantly increased. Red light therapy can also alleviate these issues by increasing circulation, repairing tissue, and relieving stiffness.

And while some may have received more natural light during quarantine in the summer, winter is right around the corner. During the winter months, Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) affects around 5% of people in general. However, with quarantine, these numbers are increasing. Thankfully, SAD symptoms can be significantly reduced, as light therapy mimics the sun’s light.

With COVID-19, it’s also incredibly difficult to manage mental and emotional health with the current circumstances. Before quarantine, if someone was stressed, they could reduce their symptoms by working out, going to yoga class, or enjoying nature with friends. But these activities have been either eliminated or significantly reduced. So, the reality is that we’re sitting at home all day, stressed, overworked, and fatigued.

Red light therapy is a game-changer for mitigating stress levels, as light cultivates calmness within the body. And since light therapy aids with cell production, it helps the body bounce back after experiencing stress or illness. In these times, red light therapy can aid with stress and help people recover from COVID-19 by reducing lung inflammation, pneumonia, and other acute respiratory disorders.

So although the quarantine presents many new challenges, we can be empowered to control our own health and wellness during these times. At Lunas, we’re passionate about helping people achieve their balance and intend to have our light panels in homes around the world, particularly during this challenging period. We hope to help everyone around the world find their light — literally!



Fetuses May be Able to See More Light than you Think

By the second trimester, long before a baby's eyes can see images, they can detect light.

But the light-sensitive cells in the developing retina -- the thin sheet of brain-like tissue at the back of the eye -- were thought to be simple on-off switches, presumably there to set up the 24-hour, day-night rhythms parents hope their baby will follow. University of California, Berkeley, scientists have now found evidence that these simple cells actually talk to one another as part of an interconnected network that gives the retina more light sensitivity than once thought, and that may enhance the influence of light on behavior and brain development in unsuspected ways.

In the developing eye, perhaps 3% of ganglion cells -- the retina cells that send messages through the optic nerve into the brain -- are sensitive to light. To date, researchers have found about six different subtypes that communicate with various places in the brain. Some talk to the suprachiasmatic nucleus to tune our internal clock to the day-night cycle. Others send signals to the area that makes our pupils constrict in bright light.

But others connect to surprising areas: the perihabenula, which regulates mood, and the amygdala, which deals with emotions.

Recent evidence suggests that in mice and monkeys, these ganglion cells also talk with one another through electrical connections called gap junctions, implying much more complexity in immature rodent and primate eyes than imagined.

"Given the variety of these ganglion cells and that they project to many different parts of the brain, it makes me wonder whether they play a role in how the retina connects up to the brain," said Marla Feller, a UC Berkeley professor of molecular and cell biology and senior author of a paper that appeared this month in the journal Current Biology. "Maybe not for visual circuits, but non-vision behaviors. Not only the pupillary light reflex and circadian rhythms, but possibly explaining problems like light-induced migraines, or why light therapy works for depression."

Parallel systems in developing retina

The cells, called intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), were discovered only 10 years ago, surprising those like Feller, who studied the developing retina for nearly 20 years. She played a major role, along with her mentor, Carla Shatz of Stanford University, in showing that spontaneous electrical activity in the eye during development -- so-called retinal waves -- is critical for setting up the correct brain networks to process images later on.

Hence her interest in the ipRGCs seemed to function in parallel with spontaneous retinal waves in the developing retina.

We thought they (mouse pups and the human fetus) were blind at this point in development. We thought that the ganglion cells were there in the developing eye, that they are connected to the brain, but that they were not really connected to much of the rest of the retina, at that point. Now, it turns out they are connected to each other, which was a surprising thing."

Marla Feller, the Paul Licht Distinguished Professor in Biological Sciences and a member of UC Berkeley's Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute.

UC Berkeley graduate student Franklin Caval-Holme combined two-photon calcium imaging, whole-cell electrical recording, pharmacology, and anatomical techniques to show that the six types of ipRGCs in the newborn mouse retina link up electrically, via gap junctions, to form a retinal network that the researchers found not only detect light but respond to the intensity of the light, which can vary nearly a billionfold.

Gap junction circuits were critical for light sensitivity in some ipRGC subtypes. Still, not others, providing a potential avenue to determine which ipRGC subtypes provide the signal for specific non-visual behaviors that light evokes.

"Aversion to light, which pups develop very early, is intensity-dependent," suggesting that these neural circuits could be involved in light-aversion behavior, Caval-Holme said. "We don't know which of these ipRGC subtypes in the neonatal retina actually contributes to the behavior, so it will be fascinating to see what role all these different subtypes have."

The researchers also found evidence that the circuit tunes itself in a way that could adapt to the intensity of light, which probably has an important role in development, Feller said.

"In the past, people demonstrated that these light-sensitive cells are important for things like the development of the blood vessels in the retina and light entrainment of circadian rhythms, but those were kind of a light on/light of the response, where you need some light or no light," she said. "This seems to argue that they are actually trying to code for many different intensities of light, encoding much more information than people had previously thought."
Source:

University of California, Berkeley

Journal reference:

Caval-Holme, F., et al. (2019) Gap Junction Coupling Shapes the Encoding of Light in the Developing Retina. Current Biology. doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.10.025.


Light Therapy can Benefit Patients with TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury)

According to a pioneering study by researchers from the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), light therapy is safe and has measurable effects on the brain.

Senior investigators Rajiv Gupta, MD, Ph.D., director of the Ultra-High Resolution Volume CT Lab at MGH and Benjamin Vakoc, Ph.D., at the Wellman Center led the study, which was supported by a grant from the Department of Defense (DOD) and published in JAMA Network Open September 14th.

This study is one of the first, if not the first, prospective, randomized, interventional clinical trials of near-infrared, low-level light therapy (LLLT) in patients who recently suffered a moderate brain injury. If further trials support these findings, light therapy could become the first widely-accepted treatment for this type of injury.

TBI is the leading cause of traumatic injury worldwide, and an estimated 69 million people experience such an injury every year. However, there are no treatments for this condition yet, largely because the underlying biological mechanisms are not well understood. It is so challenging to do studies with actual patients in the acute stage of trauma.

"The Gulf War put TBI in the headlines because body armor had been greatly improved by then. But there were still brain injuries caused by the shock waves from high powered explosives.”

Rajiv Gupta, MD, PhD, Director, Ultra-High Resolution Volume CT Lab

For various reasons, the number of TBIs has increased around the globe since then, but effective treatments are still sorely needed. For this study, a special helmet had to be designed specifically to deliver the therapy, an undertaking that required a mix of medical, engineering, and physics expertise.

This multidisciplinary team included Gupta, a neuroradiologist, Vakoc, an applied physicist, and others specializing in developing and translating optical instrumentation to the clinic and biologic laboratories. Both Gupta and Vakoc are also associate professors at Harvard Medical School.

“For this study, we designed a practical, near-infrared treatment based on Wellman Center research and working directly with DOD on the vexing problem of TBI, a condition faced by so many,” says Rox Anderson, MD, the center’s director.

Another challenge was optimizing the wavelength of the near-infrared LLLT.

“Nobody knows how much light you need to get the optimal effect,”

explains Lynn Drake, MD, one of the study co-authors and director of business development at the Wellman Center.

“We tried to optimize the wavelength, dosing, timing of delivery, and length of exposure.”

This was done through a series of pre-clinical experiments led by Anderson. These included multiple preclinical studies led by Michael Hamblin, Ph.D. Anderson and Hamblin are both co-authors of this paper.

Near-infrared LLLT has already been considered for multiple uses, but to date, few if any studies of this technology have been tested and none in patients with TBI.

It has been studied in stroke patients, and Wellman's basic laboratory research suggests it is neuroprotective through a mechanism mediated by specialized intracellular organs called mitochondria. It took several years of research at Wellman to understand the basic mechanism before the clinical trial.

The randomized clinical trial included 68 patients with moderate traumatic brain injury who were divided into two groups. One group received LLLT via the special helmet, which delivered the light. Patients in the control group wore the helmet for the same amount of time but did not receive the treatment.

Vakoc’s team at Wellman designed the helmet. During the study, the subjects’ brains were tested for neuron activity using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metrics, and the subjects also underwent neurocognitive function assessment.

MRI was performed in the acute (within 72 hours of the injury), early subacute (2–3 weeks), and late subacute (approximately three months) stages of recovery. During each visit and at six months, clinical assessments were performed using the Rivermead Post-Concussion Questionnaire, with each item assessed on a five-point scale.

Twenty-eight patients completed at least one LLLT session, and none reported any adverse reactions. Also, the researchers found that they could measure the effects of transcranial LLLT on the brain.

The MRI studies showed statistically significant differences in myelin's integrity surrounding the neurons of treated patients versus the control group. Both these findings support follow-up trials, especially since there are no other treatments for these patients.

The study also showed that light does impact the cells. While it is well established that cells have light receptors, “going into this trial, we had several unanswered questions such as whether the light would go through the scalp and skull, whether the dose was sufficient, and whether it would be enough to engage the neural substrates responsible for repair after TBI,” says Gupta.

It’s important to note, and he adds that for this initial study, the researchers focused on patients with moderate traumatic brain injury. That helped ensure their study could have statistically significant findings because patients in this category are more likely to demonstrate a measurable effect.

“It would be much more difficult to see such changes in patients with mild injuries, and it is quite likely that in patients with severe brain injuries, the effect of light therapy would be confounded by other comorbidities of severe trauma,”

says Gupta.

He adds that researchers are still very early in the development of this therapy. It is unknown if it could be applied to other types of brain injury, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), which has received a lot of public attention over the last few years.

CTE is a progressive degenerative disease associated with a history of repetitive brain trauma such as that experienced by certain athletes, most notably football players.

This study opens up many possibilities for the broader use of photomedicine. “Transcranial LED therapy is a promising area of research, with potential to help various brain disorders where therapies are limited,” says Margaret Naeser, Ph.D., a prominent researcher in photomedicine and research professor of Neurology at Boston University School of Medicine. She was not affiliated with this particular study.

Source:

Massachusetts General Hospital

Journal reference:

Longo, M, G. F., et al. (2020) Effect of Transcranial Low-Level Light Therapy vs. Sham Therapy Among Patients With Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury. doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.17337.

Half a Trillion-Dollar Market  —  Men.

There’s an emerging disruptor in the beauty industry as companies target a different consumer type to expand the half a trillion-dollar market — men.

Across the globe, men’s adoption of beauty use is already starting to take off. But the trend comes in many different shapes and forms. For beauty companies struggling to find new avenues of growth, it’s a huge opportunity to see whether men are looking for traditional grooming products, discreet moisturizers, beauty balms, or popular light therapy.

According to Allied Market Research, the men’s personal care industry is predicted to hit $166 billion by 2022. According to market researcher NPD Group, just last year, men’s skin-care products alone saw a more than 7% jump in sales and with the category currently valued at $122 million.

“In recent years, the notion that men can’t or shouldn’t be using skin-care products or caring more in general about all aspects of their appearance has been receding,”

Said Andrew Stablein, a research analyst at Euromonitor International, in a research note.

The success of digitally native brands catered directly to men such as Harry’s and popular subscription service Dollar Shave Club reveal

“the average men’s grooming routine isn’t about just shaving, but can be aided by using skin-care products,”

Stablein said.

Even high-end designers like Chanel have jumped on the trend, launching its first made-for-men skincare and cosmetics line known as “Boy De Chanel” last September.

“It seems that mass players are trying to expand their market and gain share in a slowing market by growing their user base,”

Said Alison Gaither, beauty and personal care analyst at Mintel.

This includes tutorials from U.K. makeup artist Charlotte Tilbury and Rihanna’s Fenty brand, which have both put out instructions for guys who want to use makeup subtly for a more groomed appearance.

According to Coresight Research, the Asia Pacific market is now one of the fastest-growing regions for men’s grooming and cosmetic product use. Jason Chen, general manager for Chinese online retail site Tmall, told Coresight that “supply cannot meet the demand for male make-up products across China.”

However, recent data suggests the new generation of beauty consumers prefer a non-binary approach altogether. According to NPD’s iGen Beauty Consumer report, nearly 40% of adults aged 18–22 have shown interest in gender-neutral beauty products and holistic products.

“There are so many … [people] growing up with the idea that you’re not tied to the gender you’re born with,”

Said Larissa Jensen, a beauty industry analyst at NPD.

“Beauty is no longer what you’re putting out as ‘ideal beauty.’ Beauty can be anything, anyone, and any gender.”

In 2016, shortly after Coty acquired CoverGirl, the brand made history with its first-ever “CoverBoy” featuring popular YouTube makeup artist James Charles.

Charles recently found himself in a very public spat with Tati Westbrook, another YouTube beauty vlogger. Coverage of the feud, which began after Charles backed a vitamin brand that was a rival to Westbrook’s own, has been widespread and shows the influence these internet personalities have and how the business has evolved over the past two years.

While Charles may be having his struggles now, as he has lost millions of subscribers, the attention he originally received from CoverGirl sparked similar collaborations by major brands including L’Oreal, who featured beauty blogger Manny Gutierrez, known under the moniker Manny MUA, as the face of its Maybelline Colossal mascara campaign in 2017.

“I think a lot of people misconstrue a man wearing makeup as someone that is transgender or someone that wants to be a drag queen, but it’s not that,”

Guitterez, founder and CEO of Lunar beauty told CNBC.

“I think right now people are still intimidated by the aspect of it.”

Gutierrez’s makeup tutorials and product reviews have attracted nearly 5 million subscribers to his YouTube page. According to a note by the NPD Group, one setting powder product saw a 40% surge in sales after Gutierrez promoted it on his YouTube channel.

“It’s all about inclusivity and encouraging people to be a little more inclusive with both men and women,”

Said Gutierrez.

“I think that as time progresses and you see more men in beauty, it’ll get a little bit better and better.”



Keep Your Skin Healthy with Red Light Therapy

Skincare doesn’t just affect the way you look. It also plays a huge role in your overall health — from body temperature to hormone regulation to your immune system. If you’re into skincare as much as we are, one of the many ways that can help you keep your skin healthy is red light therapy. In this article, we’ll take a deep dive into why you should take care of your skin, and we’ll also discuss how red light therapy devices can help you achieve your skin goals.

Are you ready? Let’s go straight into it.

Why Do You Need to Take Care of Your Skin?

As the largest organ in our body, your skin is your body’s first defense line to bacteria, germs, viruses, etc. It’s a vital part of the immune system and some processes in your body, such as temperature control, blood circulation, and hormone production.

Main Functions of the Skin

Let’s take a look at the skin's main functions to help you understand how essential it is for you to take care of this vital organ.

1. Defense and Immunity

The skin is an active immune organ, and it serves as our physical barrier from the dangers of the environment. It helps protect our bodies from diseases, germs, viruses, dirt, UV radiation, and potential thermal and physical injuries. It also helps detect and fight off infection, toxins, allergens, hazardous substances, and carcinogens.

2. Temperature Regulation

Aside from protecting us from extreme cold or heat, the skin also helps prevent moisture loss, keeping us from being dehydrated.

3. Sense of touch

The skin has a somatosensory system that is composed of touch receptors and nerve endings. This system is responsible for the sensations we feel, including pain, pressure, vibrations, smoothness, roughness, heat, cold, tickle, itch, and more.

4. Storage and Production of Vitamin D

Your body also uses your skin's deeper layers to store metabolic products, fat, and water. The skin is also responsible for producing vitamin D, supplied in the body when the skin gets enough sunlight exposure.

5. Beauty

Need we say more? Your skin plays a huge part in your appearance. Of course, when your skin is healthy, you also look glowing, radiant, and definitely more attractive.

Red Light Therapy and Keeping Your Skin Healthy

Before we proceed with the “how,” let’s first define what red light therapy is. Red light therapy is a non-invasive treatment option for different kinds of medical conditions. It is also used for health improvement and various aesthetic procedures.

Decades ago, red light therapy machines were only available in clinics, high-end salons, and spas. Nowadays, red light therapy devices can be bought and used by anyone. In fact, you can do red light therapy at the comfort of your home and incorporate it into your skincare routine.

How Does Red Light Therapy Work?

Red light therapy works by delivering wavelengths of red and near-infrared (NIR) light to our cells and skin. Besides helping enhance cellular function, red light therapy also helps stimulate the mitochondria and produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate) energy. This treatment option usually takes only about 10 minutes per session.

How Does Red Light Therapy Help Keep Your Skin Healthy?

Our skin relies on millions of cells to be able to perform its functions. When our cells experience homeostasis or a state of balance, our skin and body perform (and look) better. And as mentioned above, red and NIR light enhances cellular function while also preventing inflammation and oxidative stress. Red light therapy helps make your skin look and feel softer, smoother, and healthier.

Besides, red light therapy also helps damaged tissues heal and regenerate faster. It also has anti-inflammatory benefits, potentially increasing blood flow to damaged and inflamed tissues and reducing oxidative stress.

Final Thoughts

Skincare is self-care, as keeping your skin healthy also produces multiple benefits to your health. Thankfully, aside from proper hygiene, regular exercise, a balanced diet, and an established skincare routine, red light therapy can also improve your overall skin health.

For more information about red light therapy or to view our catalog of red therapy devices, click here.

Sources:

https://www.hse.gov.uk/skin/professional/causes/structure.htm

Speeding up Recovery for Athletes: Red Light Therapy Treatment

Athletes take exercise and training very seriously to maximize and improve performance. Whether you’re a competitive elite athlete or someone who’s just born to win every day, recovery can be one of the most neglected aspects of our daily lives.

Recovery: We hear it all the time from coaches and instructors, but it’s also one of the hardest things to do. The saying “Push yourself to your limits” happens also to have its own limits. Neglecting your training recovery aspect for optimal performance can take a toll on our body in the long run.

In this article, we show the importance of rest and recovery and some of the ways to speed up our body’s healing process, such as integrating red light therapy treatment.

What is Recovery?

After training or a strenuous workout, our body responds to strain, injury, or stress as a defense mechanism in inflammation. While it may sound damaging, inflammation is a natural response when our muscle tissue regenerates and grows from microtears. Going through the process is important to allow muscle growth and performance improvement. However, the inflammation needs recovery for your muscles to heal from too much strain or injury for it to maximize its healing effects.

Recovery is the process that your body undergoes to recuperate between training sessions or from the time of danger to its healing progression. Recovery works by giving your body time to regenerate muscle tissues.

Whether it’s a strain, acute soreness, or severe damage, your body needs time to heal. The time needed for the recovery process is also dependent on the severity of the damage/strain/injury. This means that the greater the stressor's intensity to your body, the longer the time you need to spend to allow your body to recover.

What are the Examples of Recovery?
  • Getting enough sleep
  • Resting
  • Cooling down
Why is Recovery Time Important?

Many athletes have made recovery time a priority as it assists in the healing process of muscles post-inflammation. Giving your body time to recover can result in an improved performance.

During the recovery time, the muscle repairs regenerate and strengthens to tolerate a higher level of strain the next time. In other words, taking time to heal makes you stronger and less susceptible to future injuries. Having enough recovery time helps in optimal performance and longevity by helping the athletes convalesce both psychologically and physically to train and perform better.

By doing this, you can prevent future chronic problems, decreased sports performance, increased risk of injuries, or fatigue caused by inadequate healing.

What are the Ways to Speed Recovery?

1. Plan Your Rest Time

Planning your rest schedule and duration involves many factors such as the intensity of your activity, your age, and your skill level in sports/pieces of training. You may need less time to recover or more, depending on your personal needs. As a general rule, for medium to intense workouts/training, it is prescribed to maintain a healthy duration of 45 hours in between training.

Pro tip: Engage in Active Recovery

If you’re not suffering from an injury or severe damage, it’s important to incorporate active recovery periods during your recovery time so your body can maintain its active state.

Proper blood circulation is important in the recovery process. When the body gets injured, the body responds by dilating blood cells to speed up blood flow. Active recovery helps maintain good blood circulation and removes lactic acid out of inflamed muscles. Active recovery activities involve light physical movements such as stretching or yoga to allow proper blood flow and help your muscles recover and adapt better.

2. Get Enough Sleep

The Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is at its peak at night as we sleep. This hormone is responsible for tissue repair and recovery. This is why the key to a speedy recovery is to make you get a good REM sleep at the right time during your recovery period. Make sure to get a minimum of 7 hours of sleep at night to ensure that your body gets enough rest that it needs and to avoid any future complications. Lack of sleep can deter the process of muscle recovery.

Pro tip: Don’t be scared of having a few extra hours

Especially when you are suffering from intense strain/injury, it’s important to sneak in a few extra hours of sleep within your recovery period. In fact, a 2018 study suggests that sleep extension, a form of sleep intervention, can significantly contribute to the success of an athlete’s recovery. One way to ensure you get a significant amount of rest is to make sure your body has a healthy circadian rhythm. If you’re worried that you’re having trouble sleeping at night, there are many ways to improve your circadian clock- including red light therapy.

3. Refuel your Body

A healthy diet is also one of the great pillars of health. The nutrients you take in play a great role in your body’s function to cooperate with the recovery process. Minimize processed foods that may contain too much salt, sweets, and alcohol. These types of food may promote inflammation and dehydration, which can hinder the recovery process. Make sure to eat a balance recommended diet of whole foods.

Have an evaluation with a licensed dietitian or nutritionist to assess your nutritional needs. Assessment may vary depending on different factors such as weight, BMI, and activity level.

Pro tip: Focus on your Protein Intake

Protein is the key macronutrient that is responsible for muscle building and repair. It has amino acids that are metabolized by your body to ease muscle inflammation and build stronger muscles. Skip gulping on those protein supplements and focus instead on taking protein from whole foods such as lean meat, eggs, and cheese.

4. Listen to your Body

There can be all kinds of rules in recovery to maximize healing, but you can’t go wrong with paying attention to your body’s signals. Often, your body’s responses can be neglected. However, overlooking these signals can result in overtraining, which puts your body at risk of having more problems in the long run.

Despite your recovery time or period, if your body signals indicate pain and soreness, it’s important to give it time to recover better to address the issue. Aside from obvious physiological signs, pay attention to your heart rate variability, indicating your body’s adaptability to stress and your overall cardiovascular fitness.

5. Incorporate Red Light Therapy

Thanks to innovative medical devices, athletes and trainers have utilized more advanced healing modalities like red light therapy. Red Light Therapy is a popular, non-invasive, and effective light therapy treatment that can improve blood circulation essential for tissue and muscle recovery. It works by using LED to deliver wavelengths that deeply penetrates the skin and cells.

Integrating red light therapy in your recovery process can speed up muscle repair and minimize pain and swelling. The therapy accelerates the healing process by enhancing macrophage activity responsible for the white blood cell’s healing and anti-inflammatory response.

Pro tip: Try using Light Therapy Body Pad

Kaiyan Medical’s Light Therapy Body pad utilizes a high-end, medical-grade dual optical energy pad that uses 30 pieces of red light and 30 pieces of infrared light. The therapy's duality promotes deep treatment by treating injured skin surface while repairing deeper muscle, bones, tissue, and joint damage. The therapy pad is specially made with a broader light spectrum to increase absorption and penetration so you can maximize the treatment’s benefits. It’s a safe, non-invasive treatment that you can add to your recovery process so you can get back in the game stronger than ever.

Recovery and Rest are just as important as optimizing and improving performance. Allowing your body to maximize its natural healing processes can improve performance and overall better physical and mental health.

More References

Ratamess NA, Alvar BA, Kibler WB, Kraemer WJ, Triplett NT. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2009.

Garber CE, Blissmer B, Deschenes MR et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2011.

Michael Kellmann, Maurizio Bertollo, et al. Recovery and Performance in Sport: Consensus Statement. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2018 Feb 1.

So-Ichiro Fukada, Takayuki Akimoto, Athanasia Sotiropoulos. Role of damage and management in muscle hypertrophy: Different muscle stem cells' behaviors in regeneration and hypertrophy. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2020 Sep.

Daniel J Plews, Paul B Laursen, et al. Training adaptation and heart rate variability in elite endurance athletes: opening the door to effective monitoring. Sports Med. 2013 Sep.

Michael R. Irwin, Richard Olmstead, Judith E. Carroll. Sleep Disturbance, Sleep Duration, and Inflammation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies and Experimental Sleep Deprivation. Biol Psychiatry. 2016 Jul 1; 80(1): 40–52.

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/247927

https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/heart-rate-variability-new-way-track-well-2017112212789

https://www.webmd.com/men/features/benefits-protein#1

Healing Muscular Pain with Light Therapy

Light Therapy Healing Muscular Pain

When it comes to pain, we could hardly avert it! Especially the muscle pain. Given that the human body has over 600 muscles, it is tough to avoid muscle pain. Evidently, one out of three Americans is affected by muscle pain annually.

Not only this, Musculoskeletal pain affects around 116 million Americans, which results in poor productivity, missed work or school, fatigue, and lost interest in work.

But doesn’t we treatments for this chronic pain? Of course, we do have several options. Currently, therapies available consist of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, steroid injections, pain medications, and surgery. Each of these has its own specific risk profiles.

What we need now is an effective solution that is less time-consuming, low risk, safe and non-invasive, and yet cost-effective. All these features are available in treatment; we call Low Laser Light Therapy (LLLT). Light therapy has been in the medical field over the past forty years. Light therapy has been demonstrated to lessen inflammation and edema, promote healing in a range of musculoskeletal pathologies. LLLT is being accepted around the globe. This is an advanced, cost-effective, non-invasive therapy for pain that could elevate the quality of life while reducing your financial strains. The causes of muscular pain are numerous. Hence, LLLT helps people from all fields like sports, fitness, medical, and even old age.


Mechanism of LLLT

In this process, light with a wavelength in the red to the near-infrared region of the spectrum (660nm–905nm) is employed on the skin surface. The reason for using these wavelengths is that they have the ability to penetrate the skin and soft/hard tissues. From various conducted clinical trials, this treatment is proven to have a good effect on pain, inflammation, and repairing of the tissues. The therapy goes from 30 to 120 seconds or more a week, depending upon the pain's severity.

Based on the tissue condition, the therapy can go on for weeks or months. LLLT has resulted in relief and reduction of inflammation, pain relief, and accelerated tissue regeneration.

But how does the light actually work?

LLLT in the Treatment of Pain

Do you know that many acute orthopedic conditions such as strains, sprains, muscular back pain, frozen shoulder, neck and back pain, etc., are amenable to Low Laser Light Therapy (LLLT)?

The Infra-Red light relieves pain in a different section of the body and increases relaxation sensation while also comforting the muscles. LLLT has been shown to enhance the multiplication of cells like fibroblasts, keratinocytes, endothelial cells, and lymphocytes. Fibroblasts and keratinocytes are two major cell types that respond to the inflammatory phase in the repair/regeneration process.

LLLT can enhance neovascularization, promote angiogenesis, and increase collagen synthesis to succor in the healing of acute and chronic wounds. The LED light sessions have shown the ability to heal skin, nerves, tendons, cartilage, and bones. Low-intensity LLLT stimulates mitochondria and also enhances the mitochondrial membrane potential.

The peripheral nerve endings of nociceptors (also known as the pain receptors), consisting of the thinly myelinated and unmyelinated, slow-conducting C fibers, lie within the epidermis. This complex network converts harmful stimuli into action potentials. Moreover, these nerve endings lie on the surface or superficial in nature, making the LLLT wavelength penetration work easy.


Hence, with the rise of chronic pain in different countries, it is imperative to validate cost-effective and safe techniques for managing painful conditions, allowing people to live active and productive lives. Light therapy is constantly evolving in relieving muscular pain. It improves the muscle's endurance, reduces muscle soreness, joint pain, and inflammation.

It’s time to let go of the pain!!

Experience the difference with light therapy from Kaiyan Medical.

More References:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12605431/

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27472858/

https://arthritis-research.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s13075-015-0882-0

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0004951414601276?via%3Dihub

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4743666/