Effectiveness of a Light Emitting Diode System on Tooth Bleaching
December 29, 2020
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The first commercial marketing of a 10% carbamide peroxide whitener occurred in 1989. Nowadays, various treatment modalities are available, which include over-the-counter bleaching (self-administered), in-office bleaching (professionally administered), and dentist-supervised take-home bleaching (professionally dispensed). Modern society desires to see the effect of bleaching immediately, resulting in higher concentrations of chemicals used in the whiteners' composition with different light sources believed to accelerate the bleaching process. These high concentrations should only be applied by qualified people to control and prevent possible damage to oral soft tissue. Today in-office bleaching mainly uses carbamide peroxide (CP) or hydrogen peroxide (HP), which might be activated by heat or light (with a chemical catalyst) to catalyze the tooth bleaching process. It is believed that most light sources decompose peroxide faster (by increasing the temperature) to form free radicals, which whiten teeth. Various light sources are available, for example, light-emitting diodes (LED’s), lasers, halogen lamps, and plasma arc lamps (PAC). All available in Kaiyan.
A laboratory study using six different photoactivation systems on three different 35% hydrogen peroxide whiteners found that only the diode laser, halogen lamp, and LED lamp showed significant color changes. Here, the light source is more important than the bleaching agent in the whitening process. Kossatz (2011) reported a larger difference in bleaching with a light-emitting diode than without it (on 35% HP gel), with a shade guide value change of 4.8 vs. 3.8 units. However, tooth sensitivity was higher (53% subjects) for the LED treated group but only 26% for the non-activated group after 24 hours of treatment. Tooth sensitivity was also found to be persistent and higher when the LED activation was used.
In a recent (2011) critical appraisal of power bleaching it was stated that light sources used in tooth whitening do not generate sufficient heat to damage teeth. They concluded that high concentrations of chemicals are responsible for faster whitening and that light sources are therefore superfluous in the whitening process.
Today LED lights are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared spectrum of wavelengths. In Kaiyan Medical we can provide you with all the right devices and wavelengths. The LED light system investigated for this article is marked as a blue LED light which means the wavelength should be between 450 and 500 nm. It is also reported that LEDs can emit light of an intended color without using any color filters as in traditional lighting methods. This Kaiyan tooth whitening system is claimed to have an activating gel which prevents heat formation, has no sensitivity to teeth, prevents pulp damage, has a blue LED light with a tailored wavelength to activate their custom made gel and can whiten teeth with up to 11 shade tabs within 20 minutes.
The EA-05 model is one of our best selling teeth, whitening lights. All of the parts are made from aluminum and stainless steel. The LED head unit reduces heat for maximum comfort during treatment.
The EA-05 comes with an aluminum wheelbase that can be easily assembled and disassembled in minutes — and comes in an aluminum wheeled carry case.
1. German Osram LEDs for performance and reliability
2. LED life expectancy > 50.000 hours
3. Ideal for beauty salons, mobile practitioners, and clinics
4. Can be easily assembled/disassembled for mobility
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Biohacking is the practice of changing our chemistry and our physiology through science and self-experimentation to energize and enhance the body. It’s a broad definition, but that’s also because the concept is constantly evolving. It includes implementing lifestyle and dietary changes that improve the functioning of your body, as well as wearable technology to help you monitor and regulate physiological data. It can even run to extremes such as using implant technology and genetic engineering.
The possibilities are endless, but they are all rooted in the idea that we can change our bodies and our brains, and that by doing so we can ultimately become smarter, faster, and better as human beings.
Start biohacking your body by using wearables like the FitBit or the Apple Watch to track the way you operate. You could also start experimenting with the power of music in your everyday life and adopting a sustainable healthy diet. But if you’re ready for something new, and something different, consider one of these non-invasive methods from our biohacking guide:
Biohack Tip 1: Red Light Therapy
Have you ever spent a lot of time indoors and begun to feel… off? Our bodies and brains need light to function at their best. Not only does the sun give us an important dose of vitamin D, but it helps us in a number of other physiological and emotional ways. Let’s look a little closer – specifically at the light wavelengths between 600 and 900 nanometers (nm). How does this range of light waves impact us and how can we use it to biohack the body?
Studies have shown that your body responds particularly well to red and near-infrared wavelengths, which range from 600 to 900 nm. This particular range of light waves is absorbed by the skin to a depth of about 8 to 10 millimeters, at which point your mitochondrial chromophores absorb the photons. This activates a number of the nervous system and metabolic processes.
In plainer terms, red light therapy has become an increasingly popular form of biohacking used to treat a number of conditions. It has been proven to relieve pain,reduce inflammation, and restore mood. And because it is a non-invasive and non-chemical treatment, it’s not as intimidating as other forms of biohacking.
Biohacking Tip 2: Functional Music
With over 100 billion neurons that are constantly using electricity to talk to each other, your brain is like Grand Central Station. If everyone is chattering loudly at the same time, it can be tough to concentrate on what you need to get done. That’s where music biohacking comes in. Brain activity can be measured in a wave-like pattern and determines if you feel alert, sleepy, relaxed, or stressed. Things that can affect your brainwaves include the activity you are currently performing, how much restorative rest you’ve had, and what you’ve just eaten or drank.
One of the most reliable ways to change your brainwaves is through a consistent sound wave. Audio entrainment, a form of music biohacking, uses binaural beats and tones to synchronize with your brain waves and induce a meditative, relaxed state. You can access programs developed specifically for your own brain and the activities you want to accomplish at Brain.fm. If you’re not ready to go that far, you can still change your mood and mindset by queuing up your favorite playlist and listening while you work out, cook breakfast, or commute to work.
Biohacking Tip 3: Osteostrong
We talk a lot about cardiac health. After all, heart disease is the #1 killer of women in the United States. Everyone needs to be aware of cardiovascular diseases and how to protect themselves as best they can. As a culture, we also talk a lot about skin health – slathering on sunscreen as part of our daily routine and supplementing our diets with collagen-boosting foods. Weight loss, inflammation, memory, GI health, and how an unhealthy diet and lack of exercise can prematurely age you – these are all at the forefront of our minds. But how often do we think about the health of our bones?
A decrease in bone health creeps up on you and most people are unaware of how bone density changes over time. Roughly up until the age of 30, men and women actually build more bone than they lose, so we are constantly strengthening our bones and working on bone density. But when we hit our mid-30s, things change. And if you’ve passed that benchmark, you may have felt that shift.
After reaching their mid-30s, women lose about 2% of bone density every year, and that continues for a few years following menopause. This leaves women with a high likelihood of experiencing osteoporosis.
So what do you do? Consider trying OsteoStrong, a non-pharmaceutical way of improving bone density, strength, and balance as one of your biohacking techniques.
According to OsteoStrong’s website, research indicates that the stimulus required to activate the growth of healthy bone tissue is 4.2 multiples of body weight. However, this level of force would be exceptionally difficult to achieve on your own. That’s why OsteoStrong utilizes the Spectrum System, which is part of a new category of devices called the Robotic Musculoskeletal Development System (RDMS).
Biohacking Tip 4: Gratitude
How we view life has a huge effect on our moods, how we treat others, and our general levels of fulfillment. When you have an abundance mindset, you’re consistently grateful for everything that comes your way and is always focused on the positive. Have a hard time adopting this type of perspective? Changing your mindset is really about nothing more than practice. You need to consistently refocus your brain to see the positive in every situation until it becomes second nature. These biohacking techniques and tools can help:
A gratitude journal in which you write three to five things you’re grateful for helps you reframe the day to focus on the positive and reflect on all the good things that happen to you.
Take a gratitude walk where you give thanks and send positive energy to every living thing you see. If you walk to work or take a morning jog, you can easily incorporate this into your normal routine.
Write a weekly letter of gratitude to someone who has helped you or who means a lot to you. It could be a family member, a long-lost friend, or even a coworker who always remembers to stock your favorite coffee.
Begin the day with a ritual, such as meditating, and set an intention to be grateful for all you encounter.
Biohacking Tip 5: Supplements
Exercising, eating right, and developing the right mindset are important steps tounlocking an extraordinary life. Biohacking helps you take this to the next level by incorporating supplements that improve focus, increase energy, and help your body benefit from the most bioavailable forms of nutrients available.
We often don’t get all the vitamins and minerals we need to keep us at peak performance. High-quality supplements in the form of pills, shakes, bars, or drinks can fill the nutritional gap and help boost performance, detoxify our systems, and achieve daily energy.
Tony has created a variety of health supplements, drinks, and bars that help you feel your best every day and make biohacking the body easy.
Almost 140 years ago, professor Theodor Engelmann showed that light color plays an important role in photosynthesis (Engelmann 1882). In his classic experiment, Engelmann placed a filamentous green alga from the genus Cladophora on a microscopic slide. He illuminated through a prism glass, thus dividing sunlight into separate wavelengths across the filament. By introducing aerotactic bacteria and observing how regions of visible light these bacteria aggregated, he established that photosynthetic oxygen (O2) production occurred in red and blue light, thereby creating the first “living” action spectrum of chlorophyll.
In the following years, Engelmann continued his studies with cyanobacteria from the genus Oscillatoria, demonstrating that in these cyanobacteria, red and blue light and orange light resulted in high O2 production rates (Engelmann 1883, 1884). Engelmann’s findings were criticized for many years, but 60 years later, his results were confirmed by Emerson and Lewis, who showed that the phycobiliproteins of cyanobacteria and red algae play a key role in light-harvesting for photosynthesis (Emerson and Lewis 1942). We now know that these phycobiliproteins make up specialized light-harvesting antennae, called phycobilisomes (PBSs), consisting of an allophycocyanin core and stacked rods of phycocyanin often in combination with phycoerythrin. These phycobiliproteins consist of an apo-protein and one or more chromophores, also known as bilins, including phycocyanobilin absorbing orange light (620 nm), phycoerythrobilin absorbing green light (545 nm), and phycourobilin absorbing blue-green light (495 nm) (Grossman et al. 1993; Tandeau de Marsac 2003; Six et al. 2007). Recent reviews on the structure and function of PBSs are provided by Tamary et al. (2012), Watanabe and Ikeuchi (2013), and Stadnichuk and Tropin (2017).
Light energy absorbed by PBSs is effectively transferred via allophycocyanin to the chlorophyll a (Chl a) pigments in the photosystems (Arnold and Oppenheimer 1950; Duysens 1951; Lemasson et al. 1973). It has long been assumed that most PBSs transfer their energy to photosystem II (PSII). However, it is now well established that cyanobacteria can re-balance excitation energy by moving PBSs between photosystem I (PSI) and PSII in a process called state transitions (van Thor et al. 1998; Mullineaux 2008). As a consequence of these state transitions, which occur at time scales of seconds to minutes, the PBSs associate with PSII (state 1) or PSI (state 2) and transfer the absorbed light energy to the reaction center of the photosystem they are associated with (Kirilovsky 2015). At longer time scales, cyanobacteria can also adjust their PSI: PSII ratio to optimize their photosynthetic activity under different environmental conditions (Fujita 1997). In cyanobacteria, the PSI: PSII ratio generally ranges between 5:1 and 2:1 depending on light quality and intensity, which is higher than the approximately 1:1 ratio often found in eukaryotic phototrophs (Shen et al. 1993; Murakami et al. 1997; Singh et al. 2009; Allahverdiyeva et al. 2014; Kirilovsky 2015).
Several studies have described that cyanobacteria use blue light less efficiently for photosynthesis than most eukaryotic phototrophs, but comprehensive studies of this phenomenon lack. Here, we study the effect of blue (450 nm), orange (625 nm), and red (660 nm) light on the growth of the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana, and other cyanobacteria containing phycocyanin or phycoerythrin. Our results demonstrate that the cyanobacteria's specific growth rates were similar in orange and red light but much lower in blue light. Conversely, specific growth rates of the green alga C. sorokiniana were similar in blue and red light but lower in orange light. Oxygen production rates of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was five-fold lower in blue than in orange and red light at low light intensities but approached the same saturation level in all three colors at high light intensities. Measurements of 77 K fluorescence emission demonstrated a lower ratio of photosystem I to photosystem II (PSI: PSII ratio) and relatively more phycobilisomes associated with PSII (state 1) blue light than in orange and red light. These results support the hypothesis that blue light, which is not absorbed by phycobilisomes, creates an imbalance between the two photosystems of cyanobacteria with an energy excess at PSI and a deficiency at the PSII-side of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain. Our results help to explain why phycobilisome-containing cyanobacteria use blue light less efficiently than species with chlorophyll-based light-harvesting antennae such as Prochlorococcus, green algae, and terrestrial plants.
Since blue and red light are both strongly absorbed by Chl a, and the intermediate wavelengths by the different phycobiliproteins, one would expect that these light colors are all used for photochemistry at approximately equal efficiency. However, several studies have described that blue light yields lower O2 production rates than red light in cyanobacteria (Lemasson et al. 1973; Pulich and van Baalen 1974; Jørgensen et al. 1987; Tyystjärvi et al. 2002), in cyanolichens (Solhaug et al. 2014), and also in PBS-containing red algae (Ley and Butler 1980; Figueroa et al. 1995). Furthermore, other studies noted that blue light resulted in lower growth rates in a variety of cyanobacteria (Wyman and Fay 1986), including Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Wilde et al. 1997; Singh et al. 2009; Bland and Angenent 2016), Synechococcus sp. (Choi et al. 2013), and Spirulina platensis (Wang et al. 2007; Chen et al. 2010).
A possible explanation for their poor performance in blue light might be that most chlorophyll of cyanobacteria is located in PSI (Myers et al. 1980; Fujita 1997; Solhaug et al. 2014; Kirilovsky 2015), and hence, blue light induces high PSI but low PSII activity. This phenomenon is also known from fluorescence studies, where the use of blue measuring light complicates interpretation of the fluorescence signal of cyanobacteria (Campbell et al. 1998; Ogawa et al. 2017). However, although several of the above-cited studies measured growth rates and/or pigment composition in different light colors, they did not report on, e.g., O2 production, PSI:PSII ratios, or state transitions. Conversely, other studies measured O2 production rates or PSI:PSII ratios but did not measure growth rates or other relevant parameters. To our knowledge, more comprehensive studies of the photophysiological response of cyanobacteria to blue light are largely lacking, and no clear consensus has yet been reached on the question why their photosynthetic activity might be hampered by blue light.
Acupuncture under traditional Chinese medicine is an alternative medicine that treats patients by needle insertion and manipulation at acupoints (APS) in the body. Acupuncture causes collagen fiber contraction, resulting in soluble actin polymerization and actin stress fiber formation, affecting the nervous and immune systems. Besides, acupuncture leads to molecular changes at APs in tissues at the cellular level. The local physicochemical reactions at the APs send signals to the organs via the tissue fluid and blood circulatory systems for optimal adjustment of the body’s organs.
It is believed to have been practiced for more than 2500 years, and this modality is among the oldest healing practices in the world. Acupuncture is based on the idea that living beings have Qi, defined as inner energy, and that it is an imbalance in Qi or interruption in the flow of Qi that causes illness and disease. Acupuncture therapy is focused on rebalancing the flow of Qi, and the practice is progressively gaining credibility as a primary or adjuvant therapy by Western medical providers.
Kaiyan Medical has been working to create ergonomic laser pens to simulate the acupuncture process. Laser acupuncture (LA) — non-thermal, low-intensity laser irradiation to stimulate acupuncture points — has become more common among acupuncture practitioners in recent years. LA is a safer, pain-free alternative to traditional acupuncture, with minimal adverse effects and greater versatility. LA has many features that make it an attractive option as a treatment modality, including minimal sensation, short duration of treatment, and minimal risks of infection, trauma, and bleeding complications.
What is the Difference
In acupuncture, needles are inserted at specific acupoints, which may be manually stimulated in various ways, including gentle twisting or up-and-down movements. Besides, the depth of needle penetration is also manipulated by the acupuncture practitioner. The patient may report sensations of De Qi, which are feelings of pressure, warmth, or tingling in the superficial layers of the skin. Many theories to explain how acupuncture works have been proposed, including the gate-control theory of pain and the endorphin-and-neurotransmitter. Others have postulated that acupuncture modulates the transmission of pain signals and alters the release of endogenous endorphins and neurotransmitters, resulting in physiologic changes.
One clear difference between needle acupuncture and LA is that LA does not physically penetrate the skin. Despite a greater understanding of LA, it is unclear how non-thermal, low-intensity laser irradiation stimulates acupoints. The mechanism of LA may be entirely separate from our present understanding of acupuncture. Current theories postulate that LLLT could positively affect modulating inflammation, pain, and tissue repair, given appropriate irradiation parameters.
Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Lasers
Inflammation reduction comparable to that of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been reported with animal studies that used red and near-infrared LLLT, with laser outputs ranging from 2.5 to 100 mW and delivered energy doses ranging from 0.6 to 9.6 Joules. Human studies have shown similar anti-inflammatory effects with LLLT, which may account for many associated positive clinical results.
Cellular Effects of LLLT
LLLT improves cell physiology by increasing the overall cell redox potential toward greater oxidation and increased reactive oxygen species while simultaneously decreasing reactive nitrogen species. These redox state changes activate numerous intracellular-signaling pathways, including nucleic acid synthesis, protein synthesis, enzyme activation, and cell cycle progression.17 LLLT also alters the expression of genes that can enhance cell growth and inhibit cell apoptosis.16 These cellular effects of LLLT might reflect its ability to induce long-term changes in cells and LLLT’s benefits for wound healing, nerve regeneration, and inflammation reduction.
Red and infrared laser wavelengths are absorbed by cytochrome C oxidase protein in the mitochondrial cell membranes. This absorption is associated with increased adenosine triphosphate production by the mitochondria, which. In turn, it increases intracellular calcium (Ca2+) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate, which serve as secondary messengers that aid in regulating multiple body processes, including signal transfer in nerves and gene expression.
The power density of a laser, defined as laser energy supplied per area (W/cm2), influences its energy penetration depth. A 50-mW laser with a beam size of 1 cm2 has an energy density of 0.05 W/cm2. In contrast, the same power laser with a beam size of 1 mm2 has an energy density of 5 W/cm2 — a higher energy density results in deeper energy penetration through the skin.
Energy transmission through the skin is also affected by the absorption of light energy by skin structures. Light wavelengths from 650 to 900 nm have the best penetration through the skin. Lower wavelengths are absorbed by melanin and hemoglobin, and wavelengths longer than 900 nm are absorbed by water. With a well-focused laser beam, red wavelengths (～ 648 nm) can penetrate 2–4 cm beneath the skin surface, and infrared wavelengths (～ 810 nm) can penetrate up to 6 cm.
Now Kaiyan has made LLLT easier to use. Kaiyan medical devices can treat multiple acupoints simultaneously at the same time.