Alzheimer's and Light Therapy Treatment

Losing our memory is something we all fear of. Alzheimer's disease is a very difficult, and the most common form of dementia. This general term refers to the loss of memory and other intellectual skills so severe that it interferes with daily life. Alzheimer's disease accounts for 50-80% of dementia cases.

Alzheimer's is a neurological disorder believed to have genetic components. It's thought to be caused by the abnormal build-up of proteins in and around brain cells; and Alzheimer's is not just a disease of old age, as it was once widely believed to be. Up to 5% of people suffering from this disease have an early onset of Alzheimer's disease (also known as "early-onset"), which often appears when a person is between forty and fifty years old. 

It is a life-altering disease and can be extremely challenging. It's not something that affects only the patient; it is a disease that alters the lives of those around you, as well.

The life expectancy after diagnosis is typically eight to ten years. Of course, this varies; a person can live up to 20 years post-diagnosis. Sometimes people don't get diagnosed for a few years, thus leading them to have less time. 

When Alzheimer's disease strikes, it initially presents symptoms that may be so mild that they go unnoticed by both the patient and his family; however, as the disease progresses, these symptoms become more evident and begin to interfere with daily activities and relationships.

The main symptoms are significant memory loss, difficulties in producing and understanding language, inability to recognize people, objects, or places, decoding external stimuli, and difficulty performing simple voluntary movements, such as using objects. As the disease progresses, psychiatric symptoms often occur, such as depression, anxiety, apathy, irritability, and even aggression.

A person with Alzheimer's needs a safe place and environment. Things must be kept simple, and their life significantly changes. You can't really expect a person suffering from this disorder to be the same. Their personality and behavioral changes are entirely normal.  

The list of light therapy uses and benefits goes on and on, as it is a form of treatment that can help with many health issues and disorders. However, for people with Alzheimer's, it can have a powerful effect on their experience.

Red light therapy is a form of therapy that works simply by producing light. There are many different devices, lightboxes, masks, and lamps that are used. The ultraviolet rays you receive in a light therapy session are the ones who directly target at the cellular level. Once the cells are penetrated by light, they accelerate at their reproductive level, increasing ATP production. ATP is the powerhouse of the mitochondria, essential for our system to function optimally.

A review of red light therapy is something we can all benefit from. There are no downsides to red light therapy, as it is a non-invasive and non-pharmaceutical procedure. 

Light therapy focuses on the cellular level. MRI imaging uncovered a 61% reduction in whole-brain atrophy and losses of volume in areas associated with Alzheimer's from red light therapy treatments. It works by rejuvenating the cells, creating new ones at a higher rate. Our organism benefits from cellular alteration because of the production of new cells. This means they're not only fresh cells, but they're stronger than before.

Light therapy masks help suppress Beta-amyloid (Aβ) build-up, the protein that forms senile plaques in the brains of people with Alzheimer's and dementia. So it's focusing on getting rid of the root of the problem. With a reduced build-up, our brain cells return to their natural state, the protein having been successfully eradicated.

Kaiyan specializes in light therapy devices that are MDA-certified and FDA-approved, making our product easy and accessible, perfect for at-home treatments – even for some of the most challenging diseases and health conditions.

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College Students use Light Therapy to Improve Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

The life of a college student is taxing, to say the least. It's likely the first time you're doing something on your own, and are responsible for yourself, your schedule and lifestyle. For some, this is the most liberating time; for others, it’s incredibly overwhelming. However, there's a general agreement that college students all go through difficult times. 

Whether still living with parents or sharing a dorm or space with roommates, college students are immersed in an entirely new life experience. Classes are challenging and students struggle with getting their work done while maintaining a social life, and perhaps a job. The level of pressure to succeed is very demanding, and this can cause negatively associated thoughts, leading to stress. Eating habits change and alter, usually for the worst, not to mention that the new sense of freedom can be chaotic for many young adults. 

Taking care of yourself is the number one priority, and when learning to deal with the new load of responsibility, college students often get sidetracked. Health and self-care get only an ounce of attention and not nearly as much as it should. While many students think it takes a lot of effort, just starting small shows results. 

Stress is the precursor of everything in our body, and leads to all sorts of illness and disorders. It's pretty common for college students to experience stress; more than 40% of students claimed to have experienced above-average stress levels, with it getting worse during exam periods and the winter season, when even more time is spent indoors. All of this, compounded by a pandemic and social distancing, makes for extremely challenging circumstances for college students today.

Now, colleges such as the University of Iowa are turning to light therapy to help get students the light they need to continue thriving. 

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a mood disorder that occurs annually, generally in fall and early winter, and ends in sunnier and warmer months of spring and early summer. However, it’s worth noting that it’s not a perfect formula; there have been reported cases of the opposite, where a person starts experiencing the disorder spring or summer, and it only ends with the arrival of fall/winter. 

SAD can affect 11 million people in the U.S. each year, and 25 million more may have a milder form of the same disorder, also known as winter blues. Depression and anxiety affect 40 million adults in America, while only 36.9% receive the proper care for these mental health conditions

And, SAD’s symptoms can look and feel much like depression. It causes you to sleep more and gives you symptoms that look like other disorders such as chronic fatigue syndrome, under-active thyroid, low blood sugar, viral illnesses, or other mood disorders.

Seasonal affective disorder is linked to a lack of sunlight. The winter days are shorter, and that itself our circadian rhythm, or internal body clock. Everyone has a specific sensitivity to sunlight, and our bodies take a cue from the morning sunlight each day. In the winter time, the lack of sunlight creates perfect circumstances to experience SAD.

Light therapy, by definition, gives you a healthy supply of what you lack in winter months, often leading to SAD. But light therapy is much more than that. Light therapy’s uses and benefits are many, so while treating SAD, you could also be treating other problems you may not even know of – it’s like killing multiple birds with one stone, and that stone happens to be safe, non-invasive, and non-pharmaceutical.

Light therapy mimics the positive effects produced by exposure to the sun. It reproduces the effects the sun provides us with, and can solve numerous symptoms of SAD through the use of ultraviolet rays. You may be wondering if red light therapy is safe for skin: yes, it is entirely safe. Specifically, with Kayian's light therapy devices, which are FDA-approved and MDA-certified.

With light therapy, you're able to stimulate your cells into rejuvenation. The light works directly at the cellular level and triggers the reproduction of ATP, the fuel our system needs to function properly. 

Light therapy helps with SAD by causing our brain to believe it's getting more sunlight. Even though the light is fabricated, it's still light. We still reap all of the benefits as we do from sun exposure. Melatonin and serotonin are what affects the impact; they too, are triggered by our light therapy devices, which is what battles SAD. 

The scientific evidence on light therapy and SAD says that even within the first hour, you may experience positive results. With daily use of light therapy, thousands of people have overcome the debilitating symptoms of SAD and other disorders, and now even college students can turn to the holistic treatment to replenish the light they’re lacking.

Alzheimer's and Light Therapy Treatment

Losing our memory is something we all fear of. Alzheimer's disease is a very difficult, and the most common form of dementia. This general term refers to the loss of memory and other intellectual skills so severe that it interferes with daily life. Alzheimer's disease accounts for 50-80% of dementia cases.

Alzheimer's is a neurological disorder believed to have genetic components. It's thought to be caused by the abnormal build-up of proteins in and around brain cells; and Alzheimer's is not just a disease of old age, as it was once widely believed to be. Up to 5% of people suffering from this disease have an early onset of Alzheimer's disease (also known as "early-onset"), which often appears when a person is between forty and fifty years old. 

It is a life-altering disease and can be extremely challenging. It's not something that affects only the patient; it is a disease that alters the lives of those around you, as well.

The life expectancy after diagnosis is typically eight to ten years. Of course, this varies; a person can live up to 20 years post-diagnosis. Sometimes people don't get diagnosed for a few years, thus leading them to have less time. 

When Alzheimer's disease strikes, it initially presents symptoms that may be so mild that they go unnoticed by both the patient and his family; however, as the disease progresses, these symptoms become more evident and begin to interfere with daily activities and relationships.

The main symptoms are significant memory loss, difficulties in producing and understanding language, inability to recognize people, objects, or places, decoding external stimuli, and difficulty performing simple voluntary movements, such as using objects. As the disease progresses, psychiatric symptoms often occur, such as depression, anxiety, apathy, irritability, and even aggression.

A person with Alzheimer's needs a safe place and environment. Things must be kept simple, and their life significantly changes. You can't really expect a person suffering from this disorder to be the same. Their personality and behavioral changes are entirely normal.  

The list of light therapy uses and benefits goes on and on, as it is a form of treatment that can help with many health issues and disorders. However, for people with Alzheimer's, it can have a powerful effect on their experience.

Red light therapy is a form of therapy that works simply by producing light. There are many different devices, lightboxes, masks, and lamps that are used. The ultraviolet rays you receive in a light therapy session are the ones who directly target at the cellular level. Once the cells are penetrated by light, they accelerate at their reproductive level, increasing ATP production. ATP is the powerhouse of the mitochondria, essential for our system to function optimally.

A review of red light therapy is something we can all benefit from. There are no downsides to red light therapy, as it is a non-invasive and non-pharmaceutical procedure. 

Light therapy focuses on the cellular level. MRI imaging uncovered a 61% reduction in whole-brain atrophy and losses of volume in areas associated with Alzheimer's from red light therapy treatments. It works by rejuvenating the cells, creating new ones at a higher rate. Our organism benefits from cellular alteration because of the production of new cells. This means they're not only fresh cells, but they're stronger than before.

Light therapy masks help suppress Beta-amyloid (Aβ) build-up, the protein that forms senile plaques in the brains of people with Alzheimer's and dementia. So it's focusing on getting rid of the root of the problem. With a reduced build-up, our brain cells return to their natural state, the protein having been successfully eradicated.

Kaiyan specializes in light therapy devices that are MDA-certified and FDA-approved, making our product easy and accessible, perfect for at-home treatments – even for some of the most challenging diseases and health conditions.

Conducting a Well-Controlled Clinical Trial for the FDA

In a scientific experiment, the tighter the controls on the experiment’s variables are, the more accurate and insightful the research’s findings will be. It’s the same case for clinical trials in the life sciences industry. A well-controlled clinical trial rooted in the scientific method's foundation will produce more reliable data and conclusions.

But how do you define a “well-controlled” clinical trial? Much to the relief of the life sciences manufacturers and their research teams, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides explicit guidance on what it means to conduct an adequate and well-controlled clinical trial in 21 CFR 314.126.

What Is a Clinical Trial?

According to clinicaltrials.gov, in a clinical trial (also called an interventional study), participants receive specific interventions according to the research plan or protocol created by the investigators. These interventions may be medical products, such as drugs or medical devices, procedures, or changes to participants’ behavior — for example, diet.

What’s the Difference Between Medical Device Clinical Trials and Drug Trials?

Many of the same factors that make a well-controlled clinical trial for medical devices are similar to what makes a well-controlled drug trial. Still, there are some fundamental differences researchers need to know.

Key differences between medical device trials versus drug trials include:

  • Differences in the Subjects who Participate. In most drug trials, the drug is tested on a small group of healthy individuals first, then administered to incrementally larger populations. Medical device trials typically only involve subjects with the condition for which the trial is designed.
  • Differences in who Administers Drugs versus Devices. In a drug trial, the patient or patient’s caregiver is typically the person who administers the drug. In a medical device trial, the person administering the device is typically the principal investigator.
  • Differences in who has Greater Responsibility. In a drug trial, the patient typically has a higher responsibility for taking the drug as required. In a device trial, the physician shares a greater part of ensuring the device is operated correctly.
  • Differences in Training Requirements. Because the physician has a greater responsibility to administer medical devices correctly, a medical device trial typically requires more practical experience — such as training in cadaver labs or proctoring during live cases.
  • Differences in the FDA Approval Process. The approval process for new drugs is typically longer than the approval process for medical devices. While it takes 12 years on average to bring a new drug to market, the average length of time it takes to bring a medical device to market is three to seven years. However, this does not always mean it’s easier to obtain approval for a new medical device. The extent of the approval process and whether a medical device requires premarket approval depends on its classification. Medical devices determined to carry significant risks to human subjects generally require premarket approval.

Which FDA Regulations Are Required in a Clinical Trial?

Both drug and device trials follow the same requirements for protecting human subjects, maintaining records, and disclosing financial relationships. Those requirements include:

  • 21 CFR 11 — Electronic medical records.
  • 21 CFR 50 — Human subject protection.
  • 21 CFR 54 — Financial disclosure.
  • 21 CFR 56 — Institutional Review Board (IRB) requirements.

While drug trials are required to follow 21 CFR 312, medical device trials are governed by 21 CFR 812.

What Makes A Well-Controlled Clinical Trial?

Whether it’s a drug trial or a medical device trial, the FDA makes it clear that all trials should have the following:

  • A clear statement of the investigation's objectives and a summary of the proposed methods of analysis in the protocol.
  • A design that permits a valid comparison with control to provide a quantitative assessment of the effect.
  • The subject selection provides adequate assurance that the subject has the disease or condition that the treatment is directed at.
  • A method of assigning patients to treatment and control groups minimizes bias and assures the groups' comparability.
  • Adequate measures to minimize bias by the subjects, observers, and data analysts.
  • Well-defined and reliable assessment of subjects’ responses.
  • Analysis of the results is adequate to assess the effect of the drug or device.

The experiment variables are designed to prove or disprove a causal relationship between the independent and dependent variables. This would be the drug or device versus the condition of the patient.

Control is a vital element of a well-designed experiment of the main variables. There needs to be a way to rule out the effects of extraneous variables other than the dependent and independent ones.

A good experiment, like a good clinical trial, often has blind controls or double-blind randomization to compare the results. The goal for a well-controlled experiment is for it to be repeated many times with the same or statistically similar results. Clinical trials are typically not repeated as much as they are designed with large numbers of subjects to remove the bias in a study with small subject sampling. This helps to rule out random samples or outliers in the “experiment.”

Many would argue other things go into the makeup of a well-controlled clinical trial, especially once sites and patients get involved. Having a research team with adequate facilities, knowledge of the federal regulations, and the time and staff to work on the project are also imperative. Additionally, having timely, well-documented data is vital to the trial’s continued success, which helps ensure the trial is being conducted in a way that will produce relevant results.

What Can We Do To Conduct Well-Controlled Clinical Trials?

A well-controlled clinical trial starts with a strong understanding of the risks involved and proper planning to mitigate those risks. Today, it increasingly requires deep knowledge of FDA regulations and global requirements like the European Union’s Medical Device Regulation (MDR) and In Vitro Device Regulation (IVDR) requirements.

Managing the many risks of any trial and keeping it moving forward requires diligent monitoring, record-keeping, and seamless coordination between all parties involved.

Finally, as clinical trials wind down, researchers need to ensure they have all the correct documentation in order in their trial master file.

A full-service contract research organization (CRO) with expertise in conducting global clinical trials is invaluable when conducting a well-controlled clinical trial. They can assist with clinical planning and consulting before a trial begins. They can help with monitoring, auditing, project management, and safety management during the trial. And they can ensure all your documents are in order as you wrap up a trial so you can obtain approval.

FDA Premarket Requirements

Bringing a device to the market in the United States may appear complex. Following these four steps may assist you in navigating the process:

1) Classify Your Device and Understand Applicable Controls

The first step in preparing a marketing device in the United States is to determine how the FDA has classified your device. A medical device is defined by law in section 201(h) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic (FD&C) Act.

Medical devices are categorized into three classes (I, II, or III) based on the degree of risk they present. As device class increases from class I to class II to class III, the regulatory controls also increase, with class I devices subject to the least regulatory control and class III devices subject to the most stringent regulatory control.

2) Select and Prepare the Correct Premarket Submission

You should select and prepare the appropriate premarket submission if required for your specific product’s classification. For most medical devices, the appropriate submission type is identified within the product classification, which may be obtained from the public Product Classification database. Note some device types do not require a premarket submission. The most common types of premarket submissions include:

  • 510(k) (Premarket Notification)
  • PMA (Premarket Approval)
  • De Novo Classification Request
  • HDE (Humanitarian Device Exemption)

510(k)

Some class I and most Class II devices require a 510(k). In a 510(k), the sponsor must demonstrate that the new device is “substantially equivalent” to a predicate device in terms of intended use, technological characteristics, and performance testing, as needed.

Some class I and class II devices are exempt from the 510(k) notification requirement if they do not exceed the exemption limitations stated in 21 CFR xxx.9, where xxx refers to 21CFR 862–892.

PMA

Class III devices require a PMA. A PMA is the most stringent type of premarket submission. Before the FDA approves a PMA, the sponsor must provide valid scientific evidence demonstrating reasonable assurances of safety and effectiveness for the device’s intended use.

De Novo Classification Request

The De Novo process provides a pathway to classify novel medical devices for which general controls alone, general and special controls, provide reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness for the intended use. Still, there is no legally marketed predicate device.

HDE

HDE provides a regulatory pathway for class III devices intended to benefit patients with rare diseases or conditions. For a device to be eligible for an HDE, a sponsor must first obtain designation as a Humanitarian Use Device (HUD).

3) Prepare the Appropriate Information for the Premarket Submission

Once you have prepared the appropriate premarket submission for your device, you need to send your submission to the FDA and interact with FDA staff during its review. Before sending your submission to the FDA, you should be aware of the following:

  • Medical Device User Fees: There is a user fee associated with the submission of certain marketing applications.
  • Small Business Determination (SBD) Program: A qualified and certified business as a “small business” is eligible for substantially reducing most of these user fees.
  • eCopy: Premarket submissions must include an electronic copy (eCopy) on a compact disc (CD), digital video disc (DVD), or a flash drive.

Once the FDA has received your submission, you should be aware of the following:

  • Administrative Review: After a premarket submission is received, the FDA conducts an administrative review to assess whether the submission is sufficiently complete to be accepted for substantive review.
  • Interactive Review: While submission is under review, the FDA staff communicates with applicants to increase the review process's efficiency. Step Four: Comply with Applicable Regulatory Controls, Including Establishment Registration and Device Listing

Regulatory controls are risk-based requirements that apply to medical devices and give the FDA the oversight to ensure medical devices' reasonable safety and effectiveness.

Private Label Your Dream Light Therapy Product with Kaiyan

Whether you’re a dermatologist, physical therapist, fitness enthusiast or just someone considering integrating light therapy into their practice, you’ve likely heard about the multitude of benefits that these non-invasive yet powerful devices offer. As light therapy continues to gain popularity, more professionals are looking for light therapy devices to level up. 

Naturally, you can purchase professional devices from light therapy companies, but you can also develop a light therapy device that can be customized to fit your individual client’s needs. This is where we, Kaiyan Medical, come in to help guide you through the process of producing your very own private label light therapy products at our state-of-the-art manufacturing facility. 

If you’re interested in creating your own light therapy products, it’s crucial you understand the development process.

The Steps of Private Label Product Development

We want our clients to comprehend the creative and manufacturing process of developing private label light therapy devices. As this is your idea we’re bringing to life, you need to be included every step of the way. Here’s our step-by-step process:

Step 1: Feasibility Study

It’s easy to lose money by investing in a product without understanding user needs. If you don’t know your target audience, you’ll struggle to create a viable product. During the feasibility step, we determine the practicality of your project and examine its strengths and weaknesses. This helps to ensure the idea you want to bring to life is viable and effective in achieving its goal. 

Step 2: Industrial Design

With our advanced conceptual design team, we determine how we can best engage with your target audience. While we focus on design, we also make sure your device fits under the required safety and health regulations. Our in-house design process creates visually appealing, high-quality, and functional concepts for manufacturing and product planning. 

Step 3: Electrical Engineering

Our in-house team has vast experience in lasers, sourcing, prototyping, and LEDs to incorporate these components and masterfully develop your product. Our electrical engineers, who are in charge of this step, take your idea and bring it to life while ensuring high-quality performance. 

Step 4: Rapid Prototyping

Rapid prototyping is essential for our projects and allows the client to see and feel their idea in the palm of their hands. In addition, it also helps clients test products with their users and receive constructive feedback. Our rapid prototyping is completed in-house as we have the capacity to create a range of samples varying from simple to complex, multi-piece models. 

Step 5: Mass Production

After your idea is turned into a tangible product and has been tested, we then plan production with in-house, pre-pilot quantities. By doing so, we’re able to identify production areas that need to be fine-tuned while ensuring high-quality and performance standards. Once these steps are completed, your product will be ready for shipment. Through our vast experience and stellar team, we can ensure a smooth manufacturing process and will guide you each step along the way, from start to finish. 

So, Who do we Work with?

We’ve been creating MDA-certified and FDA-approved light therapy devices for years. That said, we’ve successfully worked with various brands in different industries, taking their ideas and bringing them to life. Here are some of the brands and products we’ve developed.

DemarkQ

DenmarkQ offers skin care devices that use red and blue light LED to target acne and scarring. The LED light uses the body's natural healing process to improve its overall wellbeing. 

Aduro Mask
Established in 2006, Aduro Skincare specializes in LED beauty-related products under a medical license. The product is internationally renowned and clinically proven as an effective, non-invasive therapeutic skin care treatment.

Perfect Countour

Perfect Contour is our line of permanent make-up machines. Our permanent make-up machines were designed for clinical use; however, we feel permanent make-up is more of an art form than a medical procedure through our experience.

Golden Eagles

Teeth whitening has been around for ages, and we've mastered the art of developing effective teeth whitening devices. We currently have over 20 different OEM models for professional whitening and devices for at-home whitening. 

Akstra

Akstra's brand focuses on hair regrowth and hair rejuvenation and offers products ranging from home-use to professional-use models. Since Asktra's first line of hair lasers was made for clinical environments, we opted for a sleek and clean design. 

Lumiceuticals

Lumiceuticals is a brand focusing on using LED technology for pain relief. We combined LED technology with neoprene material for practical treatment pads. The pads are secured by Velcro straps, making them easy-to-use for customers. 

If you’re considering developing private label light therapy devices, at Kaiyan Medical, we create MDA-certified and FDA-approved light therapy devices, ensuring you medical-grade, high-quality devices for your business. We are eager to work with like-minded partners in developing truly effective, safe, and valuable products that tap into the power of light therapy. 

We look forward to working with you!


FDA Pre-Submission (Q-Sub) and Medical Device Companies

There is always uncertainty baked into any government submission process, and it’s helpful to companies if there is a way to tackle issues before submitting a 510(k).

The FDA Pre-Submission is a way for companies to request feedback from the agency on potential and planned medical device, biologics, and drug submissions. It’s a great service to take advantage of, only we’ve found that it tends to get underutilized.

What is the Pre-submission?

The Pre-Submission allows you to request formal feedback on your medical device before you make a move to submit your 510(k). This is known as a Q-Submission, which under the guidance published by FDA, allows you to request the following:

  • Pre-Submission (what we’re focusing on here)
  • An informal meeting
  • An agreement meeting
  • Other (such as submission issues or study risk determinations)

The Pre-Submission process was born out of a need to provide expanded access to the FDA and allow companies to get valuable feedback ahead of time. This can help keep your company on track for getting your device to market as soon as possible — it helps to be aware of possible issues ahead of time and deal with them before final submission.

The guidance for Pre-Submission is clearly laid out in the FDA document Requests for Feedback on Medical Device Submissions. If you happen to have a combination product (such as a stent that administers a drug or an inhaler), there may be other, similar processes you need to go through. The document to check out, in that case, is Guidance for Industry.

In any case, the basic definition of what a Pre-Submission is remains the same. It is a formal written request from an applicant/sponsor for feedback from the FDA to be provided in a formal written response, meeting, or teleconference. The feedback is documented in meeting minutes.

It’s a great way to meet with the FDA, ask them some questions, then document that information for future use. It boils down to identifying key issues that keep you up at night and making your overall submission process easier.

The FDA continues to expand its Pre-Submission program to include several different medical device submissions that a manufacturer may choose to bring a device to market. The comprehensive list of submission types is known collectively as Q-Submissions(Q-Subs), which include:

E, De Novo request, 510(k), Dual, BLA, IND), Accessory Classification Request, or CW.

  • Investigational device exemptions (IDE)
  • Premarket approvals (PMA)
  • Premarket notifications (510(k))
  • Dual
  • HDE — Humanitarian Device Exemption
  • De novo requests
  • Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)
  • Certain Investigational New Drug Applications (IND) and Biologic License Applications (BLAs)
Benefits of the Pre-submissions

Should I really use a Pre-Submission? This is a key question that companies often ask, so it’s important to understand the relative pros and cons. Here are some of the pros:

  • You develop a “human” relationship with the FDA. They are, after all, humans themselves and want to know who you are.
  • You can remove some of the risk elements from your submission. You get asked about things you don’t know and confirm things that you think you do know.
  • You can get “free advice” to help drive your development and regulatory strategy.
  • Sometimes the FDA will request a review of Pre-Submission materials, giving you a “bonus round” ahead of your 510(k) submission. This is a great opportunity to gain valuable feedback.

One thing to note is that you’re not getting a final acceptance at this stage; the FDA will never give you this until the actual submission. However, it’s well worth getting the early heads-up.

Cons of the Pre-submission

There’s always a money and time aspect. You’re looking at $5,000 to $25,000 to have a consultant help you with a Pre-Submission. If all timelines are met, the typical process takes 60–75 days.

A con that is frequently raised is, “What if they tell us no and say we have to do X, Y, and Z instead of what we’re already doing?”

Our answer to this will always be the same: Isn’t it better to know about this now rather than go ahead with your 510(k) submission and find out then? The FDA will pick out that same issue regardless, so it’s a much better use of your time to find out about it during a Pre-Submission.

Perhaps these cons are a big part of the reason that the Pre-Submission is underutilized, but I would strongly suggest that you don’t let them put you off using it. The FDA actively encourages medical device manufacturers to use the Pre-Submission because doing so helps the final submission's overall quality.

Conclusions

A Pre-Submission program is a valuable tool that tends to be underutilized. Perhaps companies are put off by the idea that the process will take too much time and money, or they’re worried that the FDA will tell them they need to do something they hadn’t already planned on doing. In Kaiyan Medical, we make sure our devices are FDA cleared and we constantly communicate with the FDA. Like many other medical device companies, you may find it’s well worth the time and money.

Bipolar Disorder & Light Therapy

I have a friend who often shows extreme shifts in moods. Sometimes I see an extremely elevated mood, and sometimes, it's depression. On some days, I see episodes of uplifted feelings and depression at the same time.

Strange right!

Later I figured out that she was going through a mental illness called bipolar disorder. This isn’t a rare brain disorder. In fact, about 15 million U.S adults suffer from this disorder.

Bipolar disorder is a mental illness characterized by dramatic transfer in mood and behavior. Bipolar depression can last from several days to years, depending on the person's type and state.

Let’s put light on some of the unknown facts of Bipolar Disorder.

  • Firstly we need to understand that bipolar depression has several types. It is distinguished by profuse behaviors, moods, depression, and, yes, mixed emotions. The symptoms of this illness can present at different severities and in many combinations in different people. So, it may not be the same for every person who has Bipolar disorder.

We basically classify the states into two broad classes:

  • Manic — overly elevated emotions, increase in energy, higher self-confidence, and decreased need for sleep.
  • Depression — sad, worthless, suicidal, low feelings
  • It is possible that people can experience symptoms of mania and depression at the same time.
  • The length of mood episodes and varying behavior can vary from person to person.
  • There is no known single cause of this mental illness.
  • Not only adults but children and teenagers can have bipolar disorder too.
Light Therapy — the Bipolar Disorder Soother!

If we compare other types of depression, there are fewer treatments available for bipolar disorder.

Hence, it is important to find an effective treatment for your illness.

Antidepressant medications, on the other hand, are not clearly effective. They may aggravate the mood cycling in people with bipolar disorder. Also, many people with bipolar disorder are prescribed to take other medications like mood stabilizers.

That’s why it is important to go for a non-medication treatment, like light therapy!

But why is it recommended? Light therapy is more effective, non-invasive, and absolutely safe because it can be used without worrying about additional drug interactions.

But How Light Therapy Helps?

Humans have natural 24-hour clocks, which are disrupted in bipolar disorder. One way of treating bipolar disorder is to handle the circadian rhythm (24*7 natural cycle that regulates the physical, mental, and behavior changes). And this can be achieved with bright light therapy.

The light emitted during light therapy activates the retina in the eye, resulting in a stimulus being transmitted from the eye to the brain's hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is a part of the brain that has a vital role in regulating mood. It also helps control many bodily functions, such as the release of hormones from the pituitary gland and channelizing the mood.

The light acts through the eyes to regulate the biological clock located in a tiny brain region. There are disturbances in the biological clock that affect circadian rhythms in people with bipolar disorder, including hormonal rhythms, sleep, feelings, cognition, and other behaviors.

Light therapy triggers the hypothalamus and helps bipolar patients to calm their emotional flow and have normal behavior.

Studies have shown that light can affect the major neurotransmitters, or chemical messengers, involved in mood and behavior, e.g., serotonin and dopamine. So, light therapy may act similarly to antidepressants by directly working on these neurotransmitters.

We found trials of light therapy compared to a placebo in people with bipolar depression. The studies' results displayed a significant improvement in depressive symptoms with bright light compared to placebo conditions.

I recommended my friend to you light therapy, and that really helped her. The quality of personal life is great since then. If you are also like my friend who is dealing with bipolar disorder, you possibly got the remedy.

Remember, your Mental Health matters!!

References:

Brainwaves - Get to Know your Brain

Brain waves are oscillating electrical voltages in the brain, measuring just a few millionths of a volt. At the root of all our thoughts, emotions, and behaviors are the communication between neurons within our brains. Brainwaves are produced by synchronized electrical pulses from masses of neurons communicating with each other.

Brainwaves are detected using sensors placed on the scalp. They are divided into bandwidths to describe their functions but are the best thought of as a continuous spectrum of consciousness, from slow, loud, and functional — to fast, subtle, and complex.

It is a handy analogy to think of brainwaves as musical notes — the low-frequency waves are like a deeply penetrating drum beat, while the higher frequency brainwaves are more like a subtle high pitched flute. Like a symphony, the higher and lower frequencies link and cohere with each other through harmonics.

Our brainwaves change according to what we’re doing and feeling. When slower brainwaves are dominant, we can feel tired, slow, sluggish, or dreamy. The higher frequencies are dominant when we feel wired or hyper-alert.

The descriptions that follow are only broad descriptions — in practice, things are far more complex, and brainwaves reflect different aspects of different locations in the brain.

Brainwave speed is measured in Hertz (cycles per second), and they are divided into bands delineating slow, moderate, and fast waves.

Infra-low (

Infra-Low brainwaves (also known as Slow Cortical Potentials) are thought to be the basic cortical rhythms that underlie our higher brain functions. Very little is known about infra-low brainwaves. Their slow nature makes them difficult to detect and accurately measure, so few studies have been done. They appear to play a major role in brain timing and network function.

Delta (δ) Waves (0.5 TO 4HZ) — Sleep

Delta brainwaves are slow, loud brainwaves (low frequency and deeply penetrating, like a drumbeat). They are generated in deepest meditation and dreamless sleep. Delta waves suspend external awareness and are the source of empathy. Healing and regeneration are stimulated in this state, and that is why deep restorative sleep is so essential to the healing process.

Theta (θ) Waves (4 TO 8 HZ) — Deeply Relaxed, Inward-focused

Theta brainwaves occur most often in sleep but are also dominant in deep meditation. Theta is our gateway to learning, memory, and intuition. In theta, our senses are withdrawn from the external world and focused on signals originating from within. Twilight states that we normally only experience fleetingly as we wake or drift off to sleep. In theta, we dream; vivid imagery, intuition, and information beyond our normal conscious awareness. It’s where we hold our ‘stuff,’ our fears, troubled history, and nightmares.

Alpha (α) Waves(8 TO 12 HZ) — Very relaxed, Passive Attention

Alpha brainwaves are dominant during quietly flowing thoughts and in some meditative states. Alpha is ‘the power of now,’ being here, in the present. Alpha is the resting state of the brain. Alpha waves aid overall mental coordination, calmness, alertness, mind/body integration, and learning.

Beta (β) Waves(12 TO 35 HZ) — Anxiety dominant, Active, External Attention

Beta brainwaves dominate our normal waking state of consciousness when attention is directed towards cognitive tasks and the outside world. Beta is a ‘fast’ activity, present when alert, attentive, engaged in problem-solving, judgment, decision making, or focused mental activity.

Beta brainwaves are further divided into three bands; Lo-Beta (Beta1, 12–15Hz) can be thought of as a ‘fast idle’ or musing. Beta (Beta2, 15–22Hz) is the high engagement or actively figuring something out. Hi-Beta (Beta3, 22–38Hz) is a highly complex thought, integrating new experiences, high anxiety, or excitement. Continual high-frequency processing is not a very efficient way to run the brain, as it takes a tremendous amount of energy.

Gamma (γ) Waves(35 TO 42 HZ) — Concentration

Gamma brainwaves are the fastest brain waves (high frequency, like a flute) and relate to the simultaneous processing of information from different brain areas. Gamma brainwaves pass information rapidly and quietly. The most subtle of the brainwave frequencies, the mind has to be quiet to access gamma.

Gamma was dismissed as ‘spare brain noise’ until researchers discovered it was highly active in states of universal love, altruism, and the ‘higher virtues.’ Gamma is also above the frequency of neuronal firing, so how it is generated remains a mystery. It is speculated that gamma rhythms modulate perception and consciousness and that a greater presence of gamma relates to expanded consciousness and spiritual emergence.

New Trial to Test Brain Wave Stimulation as Alzheimer’s Preventative

With a new $1.8 million grant from the Part the Cloud-Gates Partnership Grant Program of the Alzheimer’s Association, researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Massachusetts General Hospital are launching a new clinical trial to test whether stimulating a key frequency of brain waves with light and sound can prevent the advance of Alzheimer’s disease pathology even before volunteers experience symptoms such as memory impairment.

“Because Alzheimer’s disease leads to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline, the best time for intervention may be before those symptoms even begin,” said Dr. Li-Huei Tsai, Picower Professor of Neuroscience and director of The Picower Institute for Learning and Memory at MIT. “We are hopeful that our safe, non-invasive approach of sensory stimulation of 40Hz gamma brain rhythms can have a preventative benefit for patients. We are very grateful to Part the Cloud-Gates Partnership Grant Program for their support in funding rigorous research to test this exciting possibility.”

In extensive testing in Tsai’s lab with multiple mouse models of Alzheimer’s, the light and sound stimulation technique, called Gamma ENtrainment Using Sensory Stimuli (GENUS), improved cognition and memory, prevented neurodegeneration, and reduced amyloid and tau protein buildups. The research showed that increasing 40Hz brain rhythm power and synchrony stimulated the brain’s immune cells and blood vessels to clear out the toxic proteins. Early results from human testing at MIT show that GENUS is well tolerated and increases 40Hz power and synchrony, just like in the mice.

The new study, conducted in collaboration with neurologist Dr. Keith Johnson at MGH, will enroll 50 volunteers aged 55 or older who show signs of amyloid protein plaque buildup in PET scans but remain cognitively normal. Experimental volunteers will receive an hour of GENUS light and sound stimulation in their homes daily for a year. At regular checkups, the team will monitor GENUS's effect on amyloid buildup via PET scans as well as other biomarkers such as tau and for changes in cognition, sleep, structural and functional MRI, and other indicators of brain function and health.

The trial will be double-blinded, randomized, and controlled, meaning that some volunteers will be exposed to non-GENUS light and sound during the trial to provide a non-treatment comparison group. To ensure that bias does not influence the results, neither the volunteers nor the experimenters will know which group's volunteers are.

References

https://picower.mit.edu/news/new-trial-test-brain-wave-stimulation-alzheimers-preventative

https://brainworksneurotherapy.com/what-are-brainwaves

Light Therapy can Benefit Patients with TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury)

According to a pioneering study by researchers from the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), light therapy is safe and has measurable effects on the brain.

Senior investigators Rajiv Gupta, MD, Ph.D., director of the Ultra-High Resolution Volume CT Lab at MGH and Benjamin Vakoc, Ph.D., at the Wellman Center led the study, which was supported by a grant from the Department of Defense (DOD) and published in JAMA Network Open September 14th.

This study is one of the first, if not the first, prospective, randomized, interventional clinical trials of near-infrared, low-level light therapy (LLLT) in patients who recently suffered a moderate brain injury. If further trials support these findings, light therapy could become the first widely-accepted treatment for this type of injury.

TBI is the leading cause of traumatic injury worldwide, and an estimated 69 million people experience such an injury every year. However, there are no treatments for this condition yet, largely because the underlying biological mechanisms are not well understood. It is so challenging to do studies with actual patients in the acute stage of trauma.

"The Gulf War put TBI in the headlines because body armor had been greatly improved by then. But there were still brain injuries caused by the shock waves from high powered explosives.”

Rajiv Gupta, MD, PhD, Director, Ultra-High Resolution Volume CT Lab

For various reasons, the number of TBIs has increased around the globe since then, but effective treatments are still sorely needed. For this study, a special helmet had to be designed specifically to deliver the therapy, an undertaking that required a mix of medical, engineering, and physics expertise.

This multidisciplinary team included Gupta, a neuroradiologist, Vakoc, an applied physicist, and others specializing in developing and translating optical instrumentation to the clinic and biologic laboratories. Both Gupta and Vakoc are also associate professors at Harvard Medical School.

“For this study, we designed a practical, near-infrared treatment based on Wellman Center research and working directly with DOD on the vexing problem of TBI, a condition faced by so many,” says Rox Anderson, MD, the center’s director.

Another challenge was optimizing the wavelength of the near-infrared LLLT.

“Nobody knows how much light you need to get the optimal effect,”

explains Lynn Drake, MD, one of the study co-authors and director of business development at the Wellman Center.

“We tried to optimize the wavelength, dosing, timing of delivery, and length of exposure.”

This was done through a series of pre-clinical experiments led by Anderson. These included multiple preclinical studies led by Michael Hamblin, Ph.D. Anderson and Hamblin are both co-authors of this paper.

Near-infrared LLLT has already been considered for multiple uses, but to date, few if any studies of this technology have been tested and none in patients with TBI.

It has been studied in stroke patients, and Wellman's basic laboratory research suggests it is neuroprotective through a mechanism mediated by specialized intracellular organs called mitochondria. It took several years of research at Wellman to understand the basic mechanism before the clinical trial.

The randomized clinical trial included 68 patients with moderate traumatic brain injury who were divided into two groups. One group received LLLT via the special helmet, which delivered the light. Patients in the control group wore the helmet for the same amount of time but did not receive the treatment.

Vakoc’s team at Wellman designed the helmet. During the study, the subjects’ brains were tested for neuron activity using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metrics, and the subjects also underwent neurocognitive function assessment.

MRI was performed in the acute (within 72 hours of the injury), early subacute (2–3 weeks), and late subacute (approximately three months) stages of recovery. During each visit and at six months, clinical assessments were performed using the Rivermead Post-Concussion Questionnaire, with each item assessed on a five-point scale.

Twenty-eight patients completed at least one LLLT session, and none reported any adverse reactions. Also, the researchers found that they could measure the effects of transcranial LLLT on the brain.

The MRI studies showed statistically significant differences in myelin's integrity surrounding the neurons of treated patients versus the control group. Both these findings support follow-up trials, especially since there are no other treatments for these patients.

The study also showed that light does impact the cells. While it is well established that cells have light receptors, “going into this trial, we had several unanswered questions such as whether the light would go through the scalp and skull, whether the dose was sufficient, and whether it would be enough to engage the neural substrates responsible for repair after TBI,” says Gupta.

It’s important to note, and he adds that for this initial study, the researchers focused on patients with moderate traumatic brain injury. That helped ensure their study could have statistically significant findings because patients in this category are more likely to demonstrate a measurable effect.

“It would be much more difficult to see such changes in patients with mild injuries, and it is quite likely that in patients with severe brain injuries, the effect of light therapy would be confounded by other comorbidities of severe trauma,”

says Gupta.

He adds that researchers are still very early in the development of this therapy. It is unknown if it could be applied to other types of brain injury, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), which has received a lot of public attention over the last few years.

CTE is a progressive degenerative disease associated with a history of repetitive brain trauma such as that experienced by certain athletes, most notably football players.

This study opens up many possibilities for the broader use of photomedicine. “Transcranial LED therapy is a promising area of research, with potential to help various brain disorders where therapies are limited,” says Margaret Naeser, Ph.D., a prominent researcher in photomedicine and research professor of Neurology at Boston University School of Medicine. She was not affiliated with this particular study.

Source:

Massachusetts General Hospital

Journal reference:

Longo, M, G. F., et al. (2020) Effect of Transcranial Low-Level Light Therapy vs. Sham Therapy Among Patients With Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury. doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.17337.

The Bright Hope for Allergic Rhinitis

As the name suggests, Allergic rhinitis (also known as hay fever) is an inflammatory disorder of the nasal mucosa, which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air. This might sound small, but it affects 20% of the adult population and up to 40% of children.

Allergic rhinitis is biologically associated and equated with decreased learning, performance, productivity at work and school, and reduced life quality. It affects the quality of life, including fatigue, irritability, memory deficits, and depression. It is reflecting the social-economic costs and the negative impact on the quality of life.

Light Therapy for Rhinitis

If we talk about the current therapeutic options like allergen avoidance, medication, and immunotherapy, they are quite far from ideal. Light therapy has been treating immune-mediated dermatological conditions, e.g., psoriasis and atopic dermatitis.

Light Therapy has been There!

It is one of the oldest treatments that has been practiced in ancient times. Red light therapy has profound immunosuppressive effects on the human body.

As per ARIA guidelines, Red light therapy has been recommended for patients with allergic rhinitis who do not respond to standard medical treatment.

Now, the questions arise what the benefits of red light therapy are? Why should you opt for it?

Well, there are many benefits to using red light therapy:

  • Better and increased blood circulation in the nasal tissues
  • Enhanced local blood oxygen saturation
  • Reduced nasal obstruction (congestion) caused by nasal swelling
  • Improved nasal anti-virus ability
  • Repaired local blood capillaries
  • Strengthened detoxification ability of the nasal mucosa
The Mechanism

Light therapy treatment delivers light to pathological areas to promote tissue regeneration, reduce inflammation, and relieve pain. This treatment improves the nasal obstruction caused by Allergic rhinitis. The sessions involve illuminating the nasal cavity through specific wavelength log light ((660nm — 810nm) to the nose for a certain amount of time.

Most light therapy devices include one or two small LED light-emitting probes, which quickly stimulate the nasal cavity's blood capillaries.

Light therapy mechanisms reduce the number and function of dendritic cells and induce immunomodulatory cytokines like IL-10. Cytokines are a large group of proteins, peptides secreted by specific cells of our immune system. The Red Light therapy generates little heat, modulating mucosal blood supply and histamine release (organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses). This heat alters mucosal blood supply.

The therapy shows improvement in the symptoms of nasal congestion and a decrease in nasal resistance. Studies showed that Phototherapy resulted in a significant improvement of clinical symptoms for nasal itching, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and total nasal score.

Red light therapy resulted in a remarkable improvement of clinical symptoms for nasal itching, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and total nasal score.

Adopt light therapy and give your life a better quality. Improve the shape of your life; let the negativity and obstructions be at bay!

References:

Red Light Therapy Can Help Reduce Inflammation

We can usually identify inflammation when we see it. The inflamed part of the body looks red and swollen, and it feels hot and painful. But in this article, we’ll find out why we experience inflammation, as well as its causes, risk factors, and how red light therapy devices can help reduce it.

What Really is Inflammation?

Inflammation is our body’s natural response to pain, irritation, damaged cells, exposure to germs, and potential danger. There are two types of inflammation:

1. Acute inflammation

This type of inflammation happens as our body’s healthy response to injury or stress. We mean “healthy” because it helps the body recover faster. The inflammation happens only for a few hours and then starts to repair the damaged tissue.

2. Chronic inflammation

On the other hand, chronic inflammation can be excruciating and may cause discomfort or inconvenience. It causes an imbalance in the body, making it operate inefficiently over time. Chronic inflammation can be caused by viral infections, repetitive tissue damage, autoimmune reactions, and persistent and recurring acute inflammation. At its worse, this type of inflammation may lead to more serious diseases and/or conditions such as cancer, stroke, depression, and heart disorder.

Common Causes of Inflammation

Anything that causes stress on your body may lead to inflammation. These include:

  • Bruises
  • Bumps
  • Burns
  • Chemical irritants
  • Dehydration
  • Diseases
  • Excessive alcohol
  • Infection
  • Irritants
  • Poor nutrition
  • Poor sleep
  • Splinters
  • Toxin exposure
  • Wounds and injuries

Signs of Inflammation

There are five common signs of inflammation:

  • Heat on the inflamed area
  • Loss of function (i.e., you can’t move your arms or legs)
  • Pain
  • Redness
  • Swelling
Treatment Options for Inflammation

For acute inflammation, doctors normally recommend nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen and paracetamol. Meanwhile, chronic inflammation may also be prescribed with NSAIDs, along with steroids and supplements.

However, these common treatment options help prevent inflammation symptoms but do not deal with the root cause, including improper cellular function, biological imbalance, and damaged tissues. This is also why lifestyle changes (improved diet, regular exercises, and high-quality sleep) and red light therapy could be of great help.

How Red Light Therapy Works Against Inflammation

Red light therapy, also referred to as low-level laser therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation (PBM), is a non-invasive treatment option. This kind of therapy delivers wavelengths of red and near-infrared (NIR) light to your skin and cells for multiple benefits. When it comes to inflammation, it can help cut down oxidative stress and activate protective cellular mechanisms to boost your immune system and protect you from diseases that may cause inflammation. It can also boost the generation of healing agents and antioxidants in the body to speed up damaged tissues' healing process.

Red light therapy can give your body the light exposure needed to function more efficiently, improve blood flow, and limit inflammation.

Conclusion

Inflammation is a natural part of our biological processes, but chronic cases may also lead to serious health risks that can affect the quality of your life. Therefore, if you’re experiencing signs of inflammation, regardless if it’s acute or chronic, please schedule an appointment with your doctor to get the care and treatment you need as early as possible.

In the meantime, to protect your body from the stress that may cause inflammation, you can do red light therapy either through a health provider or from the comfort of your home. If you need to purchase red light therapy devices, you can browse through our catalog to see the brands and products that we offer.


Improving Mental Acuity with Light Therapy

It’s common knowledge that as we age, our normal brain function gets disrupted. We tend to find it harder to recall information, memorize names, and respond with reason. The decline of our mental acuity causes these commonplace mental problems. Contrary to popular belief, aging is not the sole culprit for mental deterioration. Many factors, such as aging, lifestyle changes, and environmental stress, contribute to the decline of mental acuity.

As cognitive decline progresses, significant mental changes can result in disorders such as dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. While these can be common aspects of life, they aren’t inevitable. Many medical experts believe that there are many lifestyle changes that you can take to prevent the degradation of Mental Acuity.

What is Mental Acuity?

Mental acuity is known as the sharpness of the mind. It involves our cognitive ability to concentrate, process, understand, reason, and memorize. On the other hand, intelligence means the extent to which our brains absorb and process a specific amount of information at a given amount of time. Mental acuity is a natural and essential aspect of our brain health and is not a measure of how “smart” we are.

Mental acuity allows us to perform daily activities effectively and efficiently. When our cognitive ability functions well, we’re more capable of doing things without damage or conflict.

What are the symptoms of a Deteriorating Mental Acuity?

Some signs of a deteriorating cognitive ability may be subtle. However, when left untreated could progress over time to more serious mental disorders. According to the National Institute on Aging, 8 out of 10 people who experience amnestic mild cognitive impairment develop into having Alzheimer’s disease.

Here are some early symptoms of a deteriorating mental acuity:

  • Absent-mindedness and having trouble concentrating
  • Forgetfulness of specific details like names, dates, events, and facts
  • Inability to reason and make vital decisions
  • Difficulty in retrieving information
  • Memory loss
  • Difficulty in following simple instructions

How to Improve Mental Acuity

Prevention is better than cure when it comes to developing chronic brain disorders. Here’s how you can take your brain health into your own hands by observing these lifestyle habits:

  1. Ensure a well-balanced diet

Getting enough nutrition is the key to ensure mental sharpness. Making sure you eat a well-balanced diet can help your body supply enough nutrients to your brain. Omega 3 Fatty Acids are essential nutrients that help build and restore brain cells. The brain also needs antioxidants to prevent inflammation.

Excessive intake of toxins such as alcohol and drug can depreciate your mental ability. Experts agree that poor gut health also results in a weakened immune system. As a result, it weakens your body’s inflammatory response. A poor inflammatory response causes mental disorders such as schizophrenia and dementia.

  1. Have Enough Sleep

Irregular sleep patterns and sleep deprivation disrupt your body’s circadian rhythm that can lead to short-term mental problems as well as long-term chronic health problems.

Your body’s circadian rhythm is a natural body clock that controls your sleep-wake schedule as well as your digestive patterns. When you’re sleep-deprived, these rhythms get disturbed. As a result, you experience headaches, mood swings, and difficulty to focus and recall information. Aside from these unwanted effects, not having enough sleep also negatively impacts your overall brain health.

  1. Get Yourself Moving

Exercise isn’t just for physical and aesthetic purposes. It also affects brain function in multiple ways. When you exercise, your body pumps more oxygen into your brain through an increased heart rate. Exercise allows your body to release hormones that are vital in nourishing your brain cells. It also promotes growth factors in your brain to assist in the growth of neuronal connections.

A study at the University of Georgia shows that a 20-minute exercise daily can improve memory retention and information processing. Many experts agree that a sedentary lifestyle may accelerate your way into cognitive decline.

  1. Use Red Light Therapy

Red Light therapy is a more modern approach to non-invasive and low-risk medical treatments. It is a form of photobiomodulation that allows light to change human cells' physiology that causes a wide range of benefits such as biological balance and cellular energy.

Kaiyan Medical is one of the pioneers of Red light therapy that uses red wavelengths to deliver benefits to the skin and near-infrared lights to penetrate deeper within the skin’s surface. This dual technology allows for better absorption and effectiveness of the benefits of Red light therapy.

As near-infrared wavelengths penetrate the brain’s cellular system, it promotes energy production by stimulating the mitochondria. It also prevents stress by keeping away oxidative stress. Thus, it delivers multiple benefits such as better blood flow, faster cell regeneration, and improved healing.

A study shows that red light therapy has significantly improved brain function when given to patients with cognitive dysfunction. All these benefits are vital in promoting and maintaining a healthy mental acuity. Red light therapy delivers all these cellular benefits to promote better sleep quality and a more balanced circadian clock.

As you maintain these lifestyle changes, you can experience a more improved brain function and better brain health. Now you can defy all odds and allow your brain to perform at its peak by having a healthy lifestyle and a balanced body.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4043367/

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/324044#oily-fish

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12595152/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5403829/

https://www.healthline.com/health/mental-health/brain-exercises

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4870908/


The Effect of Green & Red Light Therapy on Hearing

Low-level laser therapy

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been practiced for over 20 years in Europe and has been introduced in the United States as a treatment for pain and postsurgical tissue repair. It has been proposed that laser energy in the red and near-infrared light spectrum may aid in the repair of tissue damage. A proposed mechanism for this therapeutic effect is the stimulation of mitochondria in the cells to produce more energy through the production of adenosine triphosphate.

Studies in humans have investigated the effects of LLLT on both hearing loss and tinnitus, with equivocal results. Some studies have found an improvement in hearing thresholds and tinnitus symptoms.

The Subjects

A total of 35 adult subjects were enrolled in the study. Two subjects withdrew from the study due to loss of interest and/or scheduling difficulty. The data from three additional subjects were not included in the analysis. One subject yielded unreliable audiometric and speech understanding data, speech scores could not be obtained from one subject with a profound hearing loss, and calibration problems compromised data from the third subject. Data from the remaining 30 subjects were included in the analyses. The experimental protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of The University of Iowa, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants.

The Device

An Erchonia EHL laser was used to provide the laser stimulation. The device was a portable unit that consisted of a hand-held probe and a main body. The probe contained two laser diodes. One diode produced light in the green part of the visible light spectrum (532 nm wavelength), and the other diode produced light in the red part of the visible light spectrum (635 nm wavelength). Both diodes produced energy levels of 7.5 mW (class IIIb). The laser beams from both diodes were dispersed through lenses to create parallel line-generated beams, rather than spots. A second Erchonia EHL device served as the placebo. It was identical to the treatment device, except that the laser diodes were replaced with nonfunctioning standard light-emitting diodes.

The Groups

The study used three groups: treatment, placebo, and control. Subjects were pseudorandomly assigned to one of the three groups.

Initial group assignment was random with occasional adjustment to ensure that the three groups were similar in terms of number of participants, female/male ratio, mean age of participants, and mean pure-tone audiometric thresholds. The treatment group received the laser treatment protocol using the functional laser device. The placebo group also received the laser treatment protocol, but using the nonfunctioning laser device. The control group made similarly timed visits to the laboratory but received no real or feigned “treatment.” The study used a repeated-measures design, with each subject taking a battery of pretests, followed by treatment followed by a battery of posttests.

Analysis

Data were obtained from both ears of each subject. Since no obvious differences were seen between left and right ears, data from both ears were combined in the following analyses. Strictly speaking, this likely violates the statistical assumption of independent sampling, since the test results from left and right ears of a single subject are likely to be highly correlated. None of the statistical tests used in the analyses are robust to the assumption of independent sampling, and the effect of including both ears is likely to be that of artificially increasing the sample size, making it more likely that a statistically significant result will be found. All statistical tests were conducted using a significance level of .

Conclusions

No statistically significant effect of LLLT on auditory function was found, as assessed by pure-tone audiometry, speech understanding, and TEOAEs in this test. Additionally, no individual subjects showed any clinically significant change. It remains possible that other methods of LLLT could have an effect on hearing. The type of device used was not the best one for this type of study. Further research elucidating the anatomic and physiologic bases for therapeutic effects of LLLT on hearing are needed before further clinical testing is warranted.

More References

Clinical Study | Open Access. Volume 2013 |Article ID 916370 | https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/916370

ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01820416)

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How to Prevent Jet Lag with Light Therapy

How to Prevent Jetlag with Light Therapy Treatment

Globetrotters know flying across time zones can be all fun and games until headaches start to kick in, sleep cycles get disturbed, and frequent moments of inappetence prevents them from enjoying even the most sumptuous local cuisine. If you’ve had any of these unfortunate events disturb your travel plans and work productivity, you’ve most likely experienced a jet lag.

What is Jet Lag?

Jet lag, also known as jet lag disorder is our body’s reaction to abrupt changes in new environments that are two or more time zones ahead/delayed. This can affect even the most seasoned flyers like pilots and business travelers.

What causes Jet lag disorder?

Your body has a clock system called circadian rhythm that schedules your body for its sleep and wake up time. Your circadian clock is synced depending on your original time zone.

Jet lag is caused by a temporary discoordination with your circadian clock and your new time zone or sleep-wake schedule. This is why when you expose your body to abrupt schedule changes, its normal functions related to sleep, coordination, and gastrointestinal processes are disrupted. While your mind may be ready to fly west, your body may still be stuck home and is still hours ahead.

Treating Jet Lag with Light Therapy

Jet lag can take days, weeks, or longer to improve, which may affect daily activities. In addition, although jet lag may be a temporary disorder, frequent exposure also poses significant long-term risks such as disturbances in menstrual cycle, cognitive defects, and temporal lobe atrophy.

One popular and effective treatment for jet lag disorder is Light therapy. Light therapy has been considered as a popular and effective treatment for jet lag disorder and has been backed by research since 1980.

Your body clock is largely influenced, among other factors by light, which is indicative of the rising and setting of the sun. This means that adjusting to a new time zone also means adjusting to a new daylight-night time and awake-sleep schedule.

Essentially, light therapy assists your brain and body in adjusting to a new time zone by conditioning yourself to light at an appropriate time. This allows your normal body functions to be in sync with your new schedule. By regulating light exposure, you can adjust faster with new conditions.

Studies show that exposure to light therapy helps people adjust their circadian clocks to new time zones more efficiently and effectively. Treatment of jet lag by Light therapy involves an exposure to natural or artificial light such as red light therapy.


How does Red light therapy work?

Red light therapy is a non-invasive, quick and easy treatment for jet lag that brings concentrated natural light to your body cells in order to condition it for a new day-light schedule. Red light therapy emits natural light that can boost cell energy without the putting your body at risk of the damaging UV rays from the sun.

If you travel westwards, you can use Red Light in the evening to help you adjust to a later time. On the other hand, if you travel eastwards, you can expose yourself to red light in the morning in order to acclimate your body to an earlier time zone.

Kaiyan produces high-quality Red light therapy home devices that utilize medical-grade LED (Light-emitting Diode) in order to produce a natural red light that is ideal for adjusting to new time schedules.

The great thing about this device is that, if you often work away from sunlight, this indoor light therapy device can be a convenient way to adopt your circadian clock to a new time zone. Check out our top picks for the best FDA-cleared light therapy masks.

Experiencing jet lag may be the ultimate bummer for travelling, but sufficient knowledge and proper treatment can keep you away from ruining your travel plans and goals.

References:

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-to-prevent-jet-lag/
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/jet-lag/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20374031
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2829880/


The Brain in Our Skin

Dr. Claudia Aguirre which has a Ph.D. in neuroscience from USC and travels the world lecturing on a broad range of topics from neuroscience to skin care has been researching the power of the skin and its connection with the brain.

The skin is highly innervated and intricately connected to the brain and central nervous system, just as other sensory organs are. Dr. Claudia Aguirre is discovering that the skin has a lot of neuro potential, or neuroplasticity, that has gone unrecognized. For example, just as our eyes have receptors that transduce light photons into signals to the brain that we process as vision, we’re discovering that our skin also has light receptors. Although we don’t yet know how they work, we speculate that they might be signaling the brain to make systemic changes that affect the full nervous system. Similarly, olfactory receptors in the hair follicles, just as we do in the nose.

Examples

Another example is touch, for which our skin is the primary sense organ. Skin is also our largest organ, which gives us a clue as to how important touch is. Different receptors in the skin can tell us not only whether what we touch is hot or cold, rough or smooth. Skin can even sense the intention behind the touch. A gentle touch feels much different than an aggressive one. We can tell whether the person giving us a massage is paying attention or whether they’re distracted. Moreover, different kinds of touch elicit different biochemical and hormonal responses, which have systemic results. A hug or kiss stimulates the release of oxytocin, the bonding hormone, through the bloodstream, while a punch or shove will release adrenaline and cortisol. All of these capabilities are what we say by the hidden brain in the skin.

Nervous System

The skin is connected to the nervous system; it’s connected to the endocrine system. The skin is impacted by our emotional states and, conversely, our skin can impact how we feel about ourselves. Cultural stress and anxiety can trigger or aggravate many skin conditions—from acne to eczema to herpes, psoriasis, and rosacea. Conversely, a disfiguring skin condition can trigger stress, anxiety, depression, and even suicide. Chronic, generalized anxiety can create chronic inflammation and exacerbate inflammatory skin conditions, such as the ones mentioned previously. Chronic stress can result in chronic anxiety, hypervigilance, poor sleep, and a whole cascade of effects resulting in a constant breakdown of tissues and organs, including the skin. There’s a whole new field of medicine being developed called psychodermatology, which is the study and treatment of the psychological component of skin conditions. Better understanding of the neuropotential of skin also opens the possibility of whole new avenues of treatment with light therapy for many of our chronic conditions.

In Kaiyan Medical we have understood that neuroscience should absolutely be part of the conversation about skincare and beauty because the brain and the skin are intimately connected. Skincare is important not only for the skin, but also the brain. That's why we keep developing light therapy devices for skin and brain. In Kaiyan we always recommend to listen for all the little signs that your skin tells you that you tend to ignore. You get a rash, and you brush it off: “Maybe it’s just dry out. Maybe I need to switch creams.” But if it occurs repeatedly, you need to look more closely and ask, “What could my skin be trying to tell me?” Are you repressing emotions? Is there a relationship issue you’re avoiding? Is there some other life circumstance that’s “gotten under your skin”? The body has a wisdom we should listen to.

References

https://drhowardmurad.com/the-brain-in-our-skin-an-interview-with-dr-claudia-aguirre/

http://doctorclaudia.com/about

https://www.janinerod.com/the-hidden-brain-in-your-skin-claudia-aguirre-tedxucla/

Light Therapy - Color Meaning

Introduction to Color Light Therapy

Color Light therapy is based on the idea of restoring balance by applying color to the body. Its history is rooted as far back as the Mayan culture.

In India, Ayurveda, an ancient form of medicine practiced for thousands of years, is based on the idea that every individual contains five elements of the universe that are present in specific proportions unique to each individual, including their personality type and constitution. When these elements are out of balance, Ayurveda works with the energies inherent in the colors of the spectrum to restore this balance.

In ancient Egypt the art of healing with color was founded in the Hermetic tradition, the Ancient Egyptians and Greeks used colored minerals, stones, crystals, salves, and dyes as remedies, and painted treatment sanctuaries in various shades of color.

In China, traditional Chinese medicine incorporates color to be associated with each organ and elemental system. This healing method looks at the idea that every individual is a balance. The first color wheel was invented by Sir Isaac Newton. He split white sunlight into red, orange, yellow, green, cyan, and blue. He then joined the two ends of the color spectrum together to show the natural progression of colors.

Light Therapy has been valued throughout history as a remarkable source of healing. Today, the therapeutic applications of light and color are being investigated in major hospitals and research centers worldwide. Results indicate that full-spectrum, ultraviolet, colored, and laser light can have therapeutic value for a range of conditions from chronic pain and depression to immune disorders.

Wellness Benefits

Light Therapy has been reported, as part of a healthy lifestyle, to temporarily reduce swelling, relieve pain, decrease inflammation, accelerate open wound healing and greatly reduce overall recovery after medical/surgical procedures. Patients have demonstrated an increased range of motion, decreased muscle tension and spasm, and improved circulation.

Rejuvenating LED light therapy can be used for temporary pain management such as joint and back pain, sore or torn muscles, sprains, arthritis, post-surgical scars, burns, wounds, and more. When used with infrared technology, light therapy (phototherapy) is one of the most effective and non-invasive ways to improve overall wellness.

Light therapy is also used to temporarily relieve Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). SAD affects individuals when the lack of sunlight results in seasonal depression. Phototherapy helps with SAD by resetting the internal biological clock (Circadian rhythms), helping individuals sleep better, and regulate their mood. Even companies, such as GE and Philips, have created phototherapeutic products to improve and regulate mood.

Cosmetic Benefits

Light therapy is also a growing treatment for anti-aging. Many individuals have seen a temporary reduction in the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles, crow’s feet, and age spots.

Light therapy is “effective at improving the appearance of the face, neck, and chest by reducing the signs of aging, wrinkles and age spots”, says Web M.D. Combined with infrared therapy, LED phototherapy can be a great way to revitalize skin.

Healing With Color

Color is light split into different wavelengths vibrating at different speeds and at different frequencies. Objects that ABSORB all wavelengths and DO NOT reflect are black in nature. Objects that REFLECT all wavelengths and DO reflect are white in nature. Between black and white lies COLOR. Colors are wavelengths of energy that, to us, appear as color because of the potential and capabilities of the object to either absorb or reflect the energy.

Red Light

In the early 1990s, RLT was used by scientists to help grow plants in space. The scientists found that the intense light from red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) helped promote the growth and photosynthesis of plant cells.

The red light was then studied for its potential application in medicine, more specifically to find out if RLT could increase energy inside human cells. The researchers hoped that RLT could be an effective way to treat the muscle atrophy, slow wound healing, and bone density issues caused by weightlessness during space travel.

You may have heard of red light therapy (RLT) by its other names, which include:

  • photobiomodulation (PBM)
  • low-level light therapy (LLLT)
  • soft laser therapy
  • cold laser therapy
  • biostimulation
  • photonic stimulation
  • low-power laser therapy (LPLT)

Red is called “The Great Healer”. So far is the most popular light therapy. To wind down before bed, use red light. “The color signals that it’s night, which may encourage the body to produce melatonin,” says Michael Breus, Ph.D., an advisory board member for SleepScore Labs.

Red light can also improve your workout. Just one to five minutes of exposure to red and infrared light right before exercise boosted strength and prevented soreness, says Ernesto Leal-Junior, Ph.D., the head of the Laboratory of Phototherapy in Sports and Exercise at Nove de Julho University in Brazil. “Certain wavelengths of red and infrared light-660 to 905 nanometers-reach skeletal muscle tissue, stimulating the mitochondria to produce more ATP, a substance that cells use as fuel,” he says.

Green Light

Green is the universal healing color. Originally, the color of love. Green is midway in the color spectrum; therefore, it contains both a physical nature and a spiritual nature, in equal balance and in equal harmony.

Gazing at green light can reduce chronic pain (caused by fibromyalgia or migraines, for example) by up to 60 percent, according to a study in the journal Pain, and animal studies have shown that the beneficial effects can last up to nine days. “Looking at green light seems to lead to an increase in the body’s production of enkephalins, pain-killing opioid-like chemicals. And it reduces inflammation, which plays a role in many chronic pain conditions,” says researcher Mohab Ibrahim, M.D., Ph.D.

More studies are needed before doctors can make recommendations on how and how often to use green light to treat migraines and other pain, and Dr. Ibrahim says you should see a physician before trying to treat yourself at home. But at this point research indicates that exposing yourself to an hour or two every night-either by using a green light bulb in a lamp or by wearing glasses fitted with tinted optical filters-may decrease migraines and other types of chronic pain

Helps to treat and prevent hyper-pigmentation by inhibiting the production of excess melanin which then prevents it from traveling to the surface. It will help break up the melanin clusters that are already on the surface.

Yellow Light

Yellow helps awaken mental inspiration arousing a higher mentality. Thus, it is an excellent color for nervous or nerve-related conditions or ailments; fueling the solar plexus. Yellow has a very enriching effect upon the intellect. Yellow can be used for conditions of the stomach, liver, and intestines. It can help the pores of the skin by repairing scarred tissue. These rays have an alkalizing effect which strengthens the nerves. Awakening, inspiring, and vitally stimulating the higher mind promoting self-control. Typical diseases treated by yellow are constipation, gas, liver troubles, diabetes, eczema, and nervous exhaustion. Providing clarity of thought, increasing awareness, stimulating interest, and curiosity yellow energy is related to the ability to perceive or understand.

The yellow is used for treating redness, flushing, irritation, and Rosacea. It may also reduce the appearance of the tiny blood vessels on the nose and face.

Blue Light

Blue light therapy technology is an additional option for the treatment of acne. Research has shown in-office and at-home systems produce positive results.

“Blue light therapy effectively helps alleviate this common skin condition affecting 50 million Americans and 94 percent of all females, according to Judith Hellman, MD, a board-certified dermatologist, in practice in New York City. Dr. Hellman, who practices medical dermatology and specializes in dermatological surgery, laser surgery, and anti-aging skin treatments, explains how the blue light treatment system works for acne, its uses, and her clinical experience with the technology.

Cyan Light

It is used as a gentle acne treatment to control oil production in the skin as well as reduce inflammation. It also promotes the synthesis of protein and collagen.

Orange Light

Orange has a freeing action upon the mind, relieving repression. Because orange is a blend of red and yellow, it combines physical energy with mental wisdom, inducing a transformation between lower physical reaction and higher mental response. Thus, it is often referred to as “The Wisdom Ray.” Orange is warm, cheering, and non-constricting.

Through orange, we are able to heal the physical body (red) and, at the same time, induce within the mind (yellow) greater understanding. Orange helps assimilate new ideas. Orange is the best emotional stimulant, helping to remove inhibitions paving independent social behavior. Bring joy to your workday and strengthen your appetite for life. Orange aids in repairing inflammation of the kidneys, gallstones, menstrual cramps, epilepsy, wet cough, and all sinus conditions.

Purple Light

Violet is the last color we can see before light passes on to ultra-violet. Violet purifies our thoughts and feelings giving us inspiration in all undertakings. The violet energy connects us to our spiritual self bringing guidance, wisdom, and inner strength and enhances artistic talent and creativity. Leonardo da Vinci proclaimed that you can increase the power of meditation ten-fold by meditating under the gentle rays of Violet, as found in church windows.

Light therapy uses colors for their proposed wellness abilities in treating emotional and physical disturbances. Light therapy is based on the premise that different colors evoke different responses in people. For example, some colors are considered to be stimulating, whereas others may be soothing. Color therapy has been suggested for many uses, based on tradition or on scientific theories. Consult with a health care provider before using color therapy for any use.

Infrared Light

Infrared light penetrates to the inner layers of the skin at about 2 to 7 centimeters deep. Hence, it reaches the muscles, nerves, and even the bones. Many studies have shown that a frequency of infrared light, with wavelengths from 700 to 1,000 nanometers, is best used for healing inflammatory conditions.

The use of electricity for healing purposes began in 2,750 BC when people used electric eels to give electric shocks. Electricity and magnetism were used in people with just little success. However, in 1975, transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS) was developed to treat chronic pain. It was not until recently that infrared therapy was developed to improve wound healing, reduce the pain caused by arthritis, boost endorphin levels, and bioactivate neuromodulators.

Infrared therapy technology allows people to harness the benefits of the sun, without being exposed to harmful ultraviolet rays. Also, infrared therapy is safe and effective, without adverse side effects. As a matter of fact, infrared light is safe and is used even for infants in neonatal intensive care.

Infrared light is absorbed by the photoreceptors in cells. Once absorbed, the light energy kickstarts a series of metabolic events, triggering several natural processes of the body on a cellular level.

Kaiyan Medical

In Kaiyan, we are in love with light therapy. We believe in the natural balance in our bodies. We develop devices such as the Aduro mask which will provide you with the full range of color light therapies.

References

https://www.estyspot.com/blogs/esthetician-tips/an-estheticians-view-of-led-therapy-benefits-for-all-7-colors

https://www.the-dermatologist.com/content/acne-treatment-blue-light-therapy-benefits-0#:~:text=A%3A%20Blue%20light%20kills%20the,oil%20glands%20in%20the%20skin.

https://www.healthline.com/health/red-light-therapy#summary

https://www.estyspot.com/blogs/esthetician-tips/an-estheticians-view-of-led-therapy-benefits-for-all-7-colors

Deppe A. Ocular light therapy: a case study. Aust J Holist Nurs 2000;7(1):41.

Geldschlager S. Osteopathic versus orthopedic treatments for chronic epicondylopathia humeri radialis: a randomized controlled trial. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 2004;Apr, 11(2):93-97.

Maher CG. Effective physical treatment of chronic low back pain. Orthop Clin North Am 2004;Jan, 35(1):57-64.

Natural Standard Research Collaboration, Chief Editors: Ulbricht C, Basch E, Natural Standard Herb and Supplement Reference: Evidence-Based Clinical Reviews, USA. Elsevier/Mosby, 2005.

Ohara M, Kawashima Y, Kitajima s, et al. Inhibition Of lung metastasis of B16 melanoma cells exposed to blue light in mice. Int J Molecular Medicine 2002;10(6):701-705.

Wileman SM, Eagles JM, Andrew JE, et al. Light therapy for seasonal affective disorder in primary care: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psych 2001;178:311-316.

Wohlfarth H, Schultz A. The effect of colour psychodynamic environment modification on sound levels in elementary schools. Int J Biosocial Res 2002;(5):12-19.

Zifkin BG, Inoue Y. Visual reflex seizures induced by complex stimuli. Epilepsia 2004;45(Suppl 1):27-29.

5 Biohacking Techniques

What is Biohacking?

Biohacking is the practice of changing our chemistry and our physiology through science and self-experimentation to energize and enhance the body. It’s a broad definition, but that’s also because the concept is constantly evolving. It includes implementing lifestyle and dietary changes that improve the functioning of your body, as well as wearable technology to help you monitor and regulate physiological data. It can even run to extremes such as using implant technology and genetic engineering.

The possibilities are endless, but they are all rooted in the idea that we can change our bodies and our brains, and that by doing so we can ultimately become smarter, faster, and better as human beings.

Start biohacking your body by using wearables like the FitBit or the Apple Watch to track the way you operate. You could also start experimenting with the power of music in your everyday life and adopting a sustainable healthy diet. But if you’re ready for something new, and something different, consider one of these non-invasive methods from our biohacking guide:

Biohack Tip 1: Red Light Therapy

Have you ever spent a lot of time indoors and begun to feel… off? Our bodies and brains need light to function at their best. Not only does the sun give us an important dose of vitamin D, but it helps us in a number of other physiological and emotional ways. Let’s look a little closer – specifically at the light wavelengths between 600 and 900 nanometers (nm). How does this range of light waves impact us and how can we use it to biohack the body?

Studies have shown that your body responds particularly well to red and near-infrared wavelengths, which range from 600 to 900 nm. This particular range of light waves is absorbed by the skin to a depth of about 8 to 10 millimeters, at which point your mitochondrial chromophores absorb the photons. This activates a number of the nervous system and metabolic processes.

In plainer terms, red light therapy has become an increasingly popular form of biohacking used to treat a number of conditions. It has been proven to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and restore mood. And because it is a non-invasive and non-chemical treatment, it’s not as intimidating as other forms of biohacking.

Biohacking Tip 2: Functional Music

With over 100 billion neurons that are constantly using electricity to talk to each other, your brain is like Grand Central Station. If everyone is chattering loudly at the same time, it can be tough to concentrate on what you need to get done. That’s where music biohacking comes in. Brain activity can be measured in a wave-like pattern and determines if you feel alert, sleepy, relaxed, or stressed. Things that can affect your brainwaves include the activity you are currently performing, how much restorative rest you’ve had, and what you’ve just eaten or drank.

One of the most reliable ways to change your brainwaves is through a consistent sound wave. Audio entrainment, a form of music biohacking, uses binaural beats and tones to synchronize with your brain waves and induce a meditative, relaxed state. You can access programs developed specifically for your own brain and the activities you want to accomplish at Brain.fm. If you’re not ready to go that far, you can still change your mood and mindset by queuing up your favorite playlist and listening while you work out, cook breakfast, or commute to work.

Biohacking Tip 3: Osteostrong

We talk a lot about cardiac health. After all, heart disease is the #1 killer of women in the United States. Everyone needs to be aware of cardiovascular diseases and how to protect themselves as best they can. As a culture, we also talk a lot about skin health – slathering on sunscreen as part of our daily routine and supplementing our diets with collagen-boosting foods. Weight loss, inflammation, memory, GI health, and how an unhealthy diet and lack of exercise can prematurely age you – these are all at the forefront of our minds. But how often do we think about the health of our bones?

A decrease in bone health creeps up on you and most people are unaware of how bone density changes over time. Roughly up until the age of 30, men and women actually build more bone than they lose, so we are constantly strengthening our bones and working on bone density. But when we hit our mid-30s, things change. And if you’ve passed that benchmark, you may have felt that shift.

After reaching their mid-30s, women lose about 2% of bone density every year, and that continues for a few years following menopause. This leaves women with a high likelihood of experiencing osteoporosis.

So what do you do? Consider trying OsteoStrong, a non-pharmaceutical way of improving bone density, strength, and balance as one of your biohacking techniques.

According to OsteoStrong’s website, research indicates that the stimulus required to activate the growth of healthy bone tissue is 4.2 multiples of body weight. However, this level of force would be exceptionally difficult to achieve on your own. That’s why OsteoStrong utilizes the Spectrum System, which is part of a new category of devices called the Robotic Musculoskeletal Development System (RDMS).

Biohacking Tip 4: Gratitude

How we view life has a huge effect on our moods, how we treat others, and our general levels of fulfillment. When you have an abundance mindset, you’re consistently grateful for everything that comes your way and is always focused on the positive. Have a hard time adopting this type of perspective? Changing your mindset is really about nothing more than practice. You need to consistently refocus your brain to see the positive in every situation until it becomes second nature. These biohacking techniques and tools can help:

  • A gratitude journal in which you write three to five things you’re grateful for helps you reframe the day to focus on the positive and reflect on all the good things that happen to you.
  • Take a gratitude walk where you give thanks and send positive energy to every living thing you see. If you walk to work or take a morning jog, you can easily incorporate this into your normal routine.
  • Write a weekly letter of gratitude to someone who has helped you or who means a lot to you. It could be a family member, a long-lost friend, or even a coworker who always remembers to stock your favorite coffee.
  • Begin the day with a ritual, such as meditating, and set an intention to be grateful for all you encounter.
Biohacking Tip 5: Supplements

Exercising, eating right, and developing the right mindset are important steps to unlocking an extraordinary life. Biohacking helps you take this to the next level by incorporating supplements that improve focus, increase energy, and help your body benefit from the most bioavailable forms of nutrients available.

We often don’t get all the vitamins and minerals we need to keep us at peak performance. High-quality supplements in the form of pills, shakes, bars, or drinks can fill the nutritional gap and help boost performance, detoxify our systems, and achieve daily energy.

Tony has created a variety of health supplements, drinks, and bars that help you feel your best every day and make biohacking the body easy.

Red Light Therapy - 101

We are not just made of biochemical matter. We are charged energy beings, constantly interacting with the environment. Light plays a crucial role in this natural process. Comprehensive new research has unearthed a full new understanding of how our cells function optimally. Food is not the only way we obtain energy; the light also charges us.

Science now shows your body operates like a battery. Certain wavelengths of sunlight power it, and your general health is determined by your ability to receive and maintain a charge. This is what light therapy is about.

What is Red Light Therapy

Light at certain wavelengths is scientifically proven to interact with the body in beneficial ways.

Red light, comprising both red and near-infrared wavelengths, is a unique healing part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and it is one of the most natural ways to charge the body. It is now used as a new form of therapy under the umbrella term Photobiomodulation(PBM)

Red light wavelengths ranging from 600–680nm. Red light boosts the formation of collagen and elastin and assists in cell communication. It penetrates superficially and can be used for skin conditions.

Near-Infrared wavelengths ranging from 750–850nm. NIR stimulates healing, increases mitochondrial function, and improves blood flow and tissue oxygenation. It penetrates deeper into the body.

A high-quality home device like those produced by Kaiyan uses medical-grade LEDs to shine natural red and near-infrared light on your body. Like the wavelengths of light your body needs from natural sunlight, without the heat or UV rays that cause sun damage and without the need for sunny weather. Check the list of best light therapy masks.

How to Recharge your Body

Electric charge is a fundamental property of the body. The surfaces in our bodies — such as membranes, proteins, and DNA — are all charged, negatively or positively, depending on whether they lose or gain electrons.

At the core of your body’s power to heal itself are sub-cellar organelles called mitochondria. The number of mitochondria in a cell varies widely by organism, tissue, and cell type and are concentrated in organs with high energy demands such as the brain, heart, liver, skin, and muscles.

This is because mitochondria generate most of the body's chemical energy supply via the ATP (adenosine triphosphate). They also regulate various other tasks, such as signaling, cellular differentiation, and maintaining control of the cell cycle and cell growth. This is why they are often referred to as the powerhouse of the cell.

Mitochondria
  1. LED light at a wavelength from 600–680nm(red) and between 810–850nm(infrared) is delivered to the tissue via the red light therapy device.
  2. The light enters the cell’s mitochondria and is absorbed by the chromophores, including the protein cytochrome c oxidase(CCO) and EZ water, increasing its activity.
  3. As a result of this highlighted activity, three molecules are affected. Adenosine Triphosphate(ATP), Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), and Nitric Oxide (NO).
Water

Approximately 70% of our body weight and 99% of our bodies ’ molecules are made of water, and this water is in a charged state.

Recent research by Prof Gerald Pollock of the University of Washington has shown that water adjacent to a cell or mitochondrial membrane is so-called structured water. This is also called EZ (exclusion zone) water because it creates a separation of charge. Positive proton is excluded and pushed to the bulk water, and a lattice-like negatively charged water for near the membrane. This increases the voltage across the membrane—this charge separation of water in the body functions as the positive and negative poles of a battery.

What Does “Red Light Therapy” Mean?

As a term, “red light therapy” refers to treatments from LEDs or cold lasers that deliver wavelengths of natural red and near-infrared light.

The term does not include white light, blue light, or blue LED masks, and it is not the same as full-spectrum light. Some people may include infrared or far-infrared wavelengths along with red light therapy, but those are typically used in dry saunas because of their ability to produce heat. Red light therapy does not rely on heat, a major difference between natural light treatments and heat-based modalities like an infrared sauna, traditional sauna, or other heat therapy type.

Generally, “red light therapy” describes natural light treatments that deliver the same therapeutic red and near-infrared wavelengths as natural sunlight. This differs from artificial light treatments like tanning — or bright light therapy from light therapy lamps, lightboxes, or happy-light if you’re interested in natural light treatments for seasonal affective disorder.

The following terms may also call red light therapy: RLT, photobiomodulation (PBM), phototherapy, LED therapy, LED light therapy, infrared therapy, low-level laser therapy, or low-level light therapy (LLLT).

A Multilevel Treatment

Red light therapy works on multiple levels in the body.

Molecular

  • Chromophores, cytochrome c oxidase, water, opsins
  • Retrograde mitochondrial signaling
  • Light-sensitive ion channels
  • Adenosine triphosphate ATP
  • Reactive Oxygen Species ROS

Calcium

  • Heat-shock proteins
  • Melatonin
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
  • Gene transcription factors
  • Akt/mTOR/CyclinD1 pathway

Cellular

  • Inflammation, Cytoprotection, Proliferation
  • Protein synthesis
  • Stem cell production and migration
  • Immune cell viability
  • Retrograde mitochondrial signaling
  • Transforming growth factor
  • Pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines
  • Vascular endothelial
  • Mitochondrial membrane potential

Tissue

  • Muscles: Increase endurance, tone density
  • Brain: Improves cognition and immune
  • Nerves: Repair and pain relief
  • Healing: Bones, tendons, and wounds
  • Hair: Increases growth
  • Skin: Improvements of the collagen network, anti-aging, skin disorders
  • Fat: Fat re-absorption improved by enhanced micro-circulation
  • Lymph: Improved immunity
Systemic Effects

Red light therapy affects multiple bodily systems:

Fascia

The fascia is a complex web of sensitive and highly interconnected connective tissue beneath the skin that attaches, stabilizes, encloses, and separates muscles and other internal organs.

Fascia is primarily made from hydrated collagen-Protein chains in a triple helix formation surrounded by water, with a capacity to generate an electric charge in response to applied mechanical stress (piezoelectric).

The bio-electrical nature of the collagen-rich matrix is the key to understanding how pathological changes in one part of the body may cause a cascade of “remote effects” in seemingly unrelated areas and organ systems. The fascia is the long-overlooked but absolutely crucial interconnecting organ of the human body. The therapeutic effect of red light energy can be carried through the fascia network to other parts of the body where it is needed. This is turn, elevates the body’s capacity to communicate via this charged matrix in a positive feedback loop.

The well-known energy meridians of traditional Chinese medicine may actually be low resistance pathways operating through the fascia, conveying energy to the rest of the body.

Gut-Brain Axis

The gut-brain axis links the emotional and cognitive center of the brain with peripheral intestinal functions. Red light energy applied to the abdomen area can therefore influence mood and neuropsychological issues via several mechanisms:

  • Reduction in bowel inflammation and gut spasms.
  • Stimulation of neurotransmitters and hormones in the gut, including serotonin, leptin, and ghrelin.
  • Modulation of the micro-biome. The gut microbes are sensitive to light energy and respond to light energy with differences in growth, migration, and proliferation of the different species.
  • The increasing availability of neurotransmitters activates the brain’s immune system, increases blood flow, and removes toxins.
  • Increased blood circulation and reduced blood pressure leading to a reduction of anxiety and brain fog.
  • Modulation of the vagus nerve, one of the biggest nerves connecting the gut and brain. This plays an important role in stress and social communication, communicating motor and sensory impulses to every organ in the body.

Immune System

Beaming red light and near-infrared light onto cells creates a short, low-dose metabolic stress that builds up the cells' anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and natural defense systems, making the body stronger and more resilient to infections.

This is the concept of hormesis; safe, low-level exposure to stressor results in increased resistance to illness. Red light has been shown to influence the immune response in several ways:

  • Activation of the mast cells leading to the movement of leukocytes and reduced inflammation.
  • Mast cell DE-granulation and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
  • Increased infiltration of the tissues by leukocytes.
  • Enhanced proliferation, maturation, and motility of fibroblasts
  • Increased production of fibroblast growth factor.
  • Lymphocyte activation and proliferation.
  • Macro-phages activated to act as phagocytes.

Circulatory System

Red light therapy has been shown to aid the circulatory system's functioning and increase the micro-circulation of blood, one of the most recognized and well-documented effects of this therapy.

Red light stimulates the formation of new capillaries carrying more oxygen to the body.

A good oxygen supply is intricately involved in numerous biological processes, including cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and protein synthesis, required to restore tissue function and integrity.

Increased circulation allows for waste products to be carried away more effectively. It triggers and heightens the body’s own scavenging process for and ingesting degenerated cells for clean-up.

In fact, increased micro-circulation of blood is thought to be the most vital function for healing the body for almost every illness. For general well-being, Nutrient-rich blood and efficient waste removal is strongly linked to good health.

Nervous System

The nervous system is a complex electrical system, including the brain and spinal cord. It collects, processes, and responds to the input of energy-be it light, sound, heat, or pressure — and it relays these messages to the brain and around the body.

Red light energy affects the nervous system in several crucial ways:

  • Myelination of fibers and a better lamellar organization of the myelin sheath.
  • Improvement of electrophysiological function.
  • Facilitation of neural regeneration.
  • Release of growth factors.
  • Increase of vascular network and collagen.
  • Faster regeneration of nerve lesions and functional improvement of damaged nerves.

The peripheral nerves can be damaged by infection or high sugar levels in the case of diabetic neuropathy.

Red light therapy is being explored as a promising drug-free therapy for all kinds of nerve damage.

Stem Cells

At the frontier of science, red light therapy shows huge promise in current research to stimulate the growth of stem cells in the body and maximize the effect of stem cell implantation for a wide variety of medical purposes.

Therefore, red light may be useful after surgery to stimulate stem cells to aid the repair of tissues and possibly organs.

Light at certain wavelengths has also been shown to coax stem cells to repair teeth, so red light therapy could soon revolutionize dental treatments. Indeed, some progressive dental clinics now offer red light therapy as an alternative to conventional drug and drill treatments.

Red light therapy has been shown to stimulate mesenchymal stem cells in the bone marrow to enhance their capacity to infiltrate the brain.

This has implications for healing degenerative conditions such as dementia, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s disease , currently lacking any orthodox treatment solution.

Where Did Red Light Therapy Come From?

Red light therapy has become a popular natural health intervention, both in professional settings and with home devices.

Light therapy technology has been used in medicine for decades, and NASA experimented with red light therapy use in space in the 1980s and 1990s. In the last 10–20 years, red light therapy has become more widely used thanks to breakthroughs in LED lighting technology that have made affordable home devices possible.

Major advances in clinical light therapy research, and increased public interest in natural health technologies, have also contributed to the growing use and popularity of red light therapy.

In 2016, Kaiyan Medical was the first red light therapy manufacturer to offer affordable, medical-grade devices to consumers for convenient, at-home use.

Relieve Pain And Discomfort

In humans, photobiomodulation is reportedly effective against various pain conditions, including mucositis, carpal tunnel syndrome, orthodontic pain, temporomandibular joint pain, neck pain, neuropathic pain from amputation, and menstrual cramps.

Red light therapy significantly reduces the severity of pain hypersensitivity while improving sensorimotor function.

These improvements are preceded by an anti-inflammatory microglia/macrophage cell population in the injury zone, thereby providing a lasting pain relief effect.

Red light therapy has been shown to yield effective pain relief via the modulation of multiple mechanisms:

  • Inhibitory cyclooxygenase and prostaglandins
  • Modulating nerve transmission
  • Increasing endorphins serotonin release
  • Stimulating metabolism
  • Activating peripheral opioid receptors
Repair Skin

Red light therapy is used for the rapid and safe healing of wounds from burns, surgery incisions, scars, diabetic neuropathy, ulcers, and bedsores.

Faster and better wound healing was one of NASA’s original findings and one of the key recognized uses for this technology. Red and near-infrared light promote beneficial effects during all four phases of the wound-healing process:

  • Coagulation
  • Inflammation
  • Migration
  • Remodeling

These processes are regulated by many growth factors connected with nitric oxide (NO) signaling release, which is modulated by light energy.

A major typical inhibiting factor for the body’s ability to recover from a wound is low oxygen flow. Therefore, the unique ability of red light to increase oxygen flow to the affected area has a massive effect on the healing process.

By reducing inflammation, oxygenation of the area, and formation of new blood vessels, a rapid healing process unfolds with less pain and scarring.

Red light energy may also reduce or prevent the need for pharmaceutical painkiller medication during the healing process.

Revive Immunity

If your body is energized on a cellular level and communication between the organ systems is efficient, your body will naturally develop disease resistance.

Your immune defense works to fend off bacteria and viruses all the time. Red light therapy boosts this system in several ways.

It releases nitric oxide and melatonin, which are involved in DNA repair and have a powerful antimicrobial effect.

It also works through a process known as hormesis. When red and near-infrared light is beamed into cells, it causes mild metabolic stress, which results in cells engaging their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant response.

In this way, the body is primed and ready to respond better to infections. Boosted immunity is also a natural consequence of other systemic effects of red light therapy.

Studies have shown a variety of benefits to the immune system:

  • Improved melatonin production
  • Improved antioxidant production
  • Increased micro-circulation enabling the transportation of immune cells.
  • Promotes activity in the lymph nodes
  • Increased NO levels
  • Better flow of neurotransmitters
  • Boosted collagen and elastin production
  • The more efficient function of cells and organelles
  • Boosts T cells pre-operatively
  • Improved thyroid function
Reduce Inflammation

Inflammation can be acute and topical ( short-lived, caused by accidents, sprains, and infections ), chronic and general ( long-term, caused by persistent conditions ).

While acute inflammation is a healthy physical healing response, chronic and general inflammation can be detrimental to health and often goes undetected.

Currently, the main treatment for inflammation in the body is NSAID or steroid drugs, both of which have side effects and disrupt the body's healing process. Red light therapy stimulates the body to activate its own healing mechanism, dramatically reducing the health risks associated with long term drug use.

Red light therapy works by decreasing the number of inflammatory cells, increasing fibroblast proliferation ( the cell that synthesizes the extra-cellular matrix and collagen ), stimulating angiogenesis ( the formation of new blood vessels ), and activating the body’s innate anti-inflammatory, antioxidant defenses.

The following conditions, associated with chronic and acute inflammation, are currently being investigated as highly promising targets for red light therapy.

  • Arthritis
  • Asthma
  • Sinusitis
  • Muscular sprains
  • Fibro-myalgia
  • Neuron inflammatory disorders such as Alzheimer’s
  • Irritable bowel syndrome and colitis
  • Rheumatic conditions
Regain Performance

Red light therapy has become a hot topic in sports and performance. Not only is it safe and non-toxic-it yields rapid and lasting results in many areas of application.

Besides the overwhelmingly beneficial effects on health overall, red light therapy supports muscle growth and repair by increasing the amount of ATP available, which allows for better performance and faster recovery.

Red light therapy used before training is known to prepare and strengthen the body and physical exertion to help with recovery.

Documented effects from red light therapy include:

  • Reducing DOMS ( Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness )
  • Greater endurance and performance
  • Improving sleep quality
  • Increasing sexual function and libido ( Including Testosterone )
  • Aiding weight loss
  • Boosting cognitive function
  • Reversing skin aging
  • Reducing cellulite
Red Light Therapy for Depression and Seasonal Affective Disorder

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that impacts at least 5% of Americans, especially in the winter months, when natural light exposure is lowest. SAD is also called seasonal depression, winter depression, or the winter blues.

Some people treat SAD symptoms with treatment options like bright white light therapies that mimic the sun’s light intensity at a bright time of day.

More researchers and physicians have used natural light treatments like red light therapy to help with natural light deficiency and the winter blues in recent years in conjunction with antidepressant medication and psychotherapy.

Who Uses Red Light Therapy?

In addition to the growing number of people using red light therapy devices in their home, red light therapy systems can be found in many professional and clinical settings:

Skincare Professionals: Red light therapy is a popular skin treatment among Hollywood celebrities for anti-aging, and it’s used by leading skincare professionals like estheticians and dermatologists to treat skin conditions and promote collagen production.

Health Practitioners: Red light therapy is an emerging subspecialty of medicine in a wide range of fields. From oncologists treating cancer side effects, to dentists reducing oral inflammation, to physicians treating mental health conditions, red light therapy is becoming more widespread in clinical practice.

Natural Health Experts: Leading voices in natural health and wellness like Dr. Sarah Ballantyne, Dave Asprey, and Ben Greenfield use red light therapy. So do Paleo and Keto health experts like Mark Sisson, Dr. Anthony Gustin, Luke Storey, and Robb Wolf.

Sports Medicine Pros: Light therapy companies work side by side with the National Association of Sports Medicine (NASM), and red light therapy is used to heal sports injuries by sports medicine professionals across the globe. Including the top trainers and doctors on the PGA Tour, like Dr. Troy Van Biezen and Dr. Ara Suppiah.

Elite Pro Athletes: Red light therapy is a popular training tool across pro sports, from NFL stars like Patrick Peterson, to UFC champs like Anthony Pettis, to gold medal gymnast Sanne Wevers.

Fitness & Training: World-class personal trainers like Lacey Stone and Jorge Cruise use red light therapy to both enhance performance and improve the muscle recovery process.

Supportive Cancer Care: The Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) recommends red light therapy for the treatment of oral mucositis (OM), a common and debilitating symptom of cancer treatment.

Sources and References:

Klepeis N., Nelson W., Ott W., Robinson J., Tsang A., Switzer P., Behar J., Hern S., Engelmann W. “The National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS): a resource for assessing exposure to environmental pollutants”. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 2001.

Hamblin M. “Mechanisms and applications of the anti-inflammatory effects of photobiomodulation.” AIMS Biophys. 2017.

LED Lights Used in Plant Growth Experiments for Deep Space Missions. NASA.

Gál P,  Stausholm MB, et al. Should open excisions and sutured incisions be treated differently? A review and meta-analysis of animal wound models following low-level laser therapy. Lasers in Medical Science. 2018 Aug.

John Foley, David B Vasily, et al. 830 nm light-emitting diode (led) phototherapy significantly reduced return-to-play in injured university athletes: a pilot study. Laser Therapy. 2016 Mar.

Kim HK, Choi JH. Effects of radiofrequency, electroacupuncture, and low-level laser therapy on the wrinkles and moisture content of the forehead, eyes, and cheek. Journal of Physical Therapy Science. 2017 February.

Wunsch A and Matuschka K. A Controlled Trial to Determine the Efficacy of Red and Near-Infrared Light Treatment in Patient Satisfaction, Reduction of Fine Lines, Wrinkles, Skin Roughness, and Intradermal Collagen Density Increase. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. Feb 2014.

Barolet D, Roberge CJ, et al. Regulation of skin collagen metabolism in vitro using a pulsed 660 nm LED light source: clinical correlation with a single-blinded study. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 2009 December.

Morita T., Tokura H. “ Effects of lights of different color temperature on the nocturnal changes in core temperature and melatonin in humans” Journal of Physiological Anthropology. 1996, Sept.

Naeser M., Zafonte R, Krengel MH, Martin PI,  Frazier J, Hamblin MR, Knight JA, Meehan WP, Baker EH. “Significant improvements in cognitive performance post-transcranial, red/near-infrared light-emitting diode treatments in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: open-protocol study”  Journal of Neurotrauma. 2014, June.

Liu KH, Liu D, et al. “Comparative effectiveness of low-level laser therapy for adult androgenic alopecia: a system review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.” Lasers in Medical Science. 2019 Aug.

Gupta AK, Mays RR, et al. “Efficacy of non-surgical treatments for androgenetic alopecia: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.” JEADV. 2018 Dec.

Afifi L, Maranda EL, et al. “Low-level laser therapy as a treatment for androgenetic alopecia.” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. 2017 Jan.

Hofling DB, Chavantes MC, et al. Low-level laser in the treatment of patients with hypothyroidism induced by chronic autoimmune thyroiditis: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. May 2013.

Hofling DB, Chavantes MC, et al. Assessment of the effects of low-level laser therapy on the thyroid vascularization of patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism by color Doppler ultrasound. ISRN Endocrinology. 2012.

Hofling DB, Chavantes MC, et al. Low-level laser therapy in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis: a pilot study. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. 2010 Aug.

Vladimirovich Moskvin S., Ivanovich Apolikhin O. Effectiveness of low level laser therapy for treating male infertility. Biomedicine (Taipei). 2018 June.

Ban Frangez H., Frangez I., Verdenik I., Jansa V., Virant Klun I. Photobiomodulation with light-emitting diodes improves sperm motility in men with asthenozoospermia. Laser in Medical Science, 2015 Jan.

Salman Yazdi, R., Bakhshi, S., Jannat Alipoor, F. et al. Effect of 830-nm diode laser irradiation on human sperm motility. Lasers Med Sci. 2014.

Chow KW, Preece D, Burns MW. Effect of red light on optically trapped spermatozoa. Biomedical Optics Express. 2017 Aug.

Preece D., Chow KW, Gomez-Godinez V., Gustafson K., et al. Red light improves spermatozoa motility and does not induce oxidative DNA damage. Scientific Reports. 2017 Apr.

American Psychiatric Association

Cassano P, Petrie SR, et al. Transcranial Photobiomodulation for the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder. The ELATED-2 Pilot Trial. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2018 October.

Barrett DW, et al. Transcranial infrared laser stimulation produces beneficial cognitive and emotional effects in humans. 2013 Jan.

Blanco NJ, Maddox WT, Gonzalez-Lima F. Improving executive function using transcranial infrared laser stimulation. Journal of Neuropsychology. 2017 Mar.

Paolillo FR, Borghi-Silva A, et al. New treatment of cellulite with infrared-LED illumination applied during high-intensity treadmill training. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2011 Aug;13(4):166-71.

Caruso-Davis MK, Guillot TS, Podichetty VK, Mashtalir N, Dhurandhar NV, Dubuisson O, Yu Y. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy for body contouring and spot fat reduction. Obes Surg. 2011. Jun;21(6):722-9.

Jackson RF, Dedo DD, Roche GC, et al. Low-level laser therapy as a non-invasive approach for body contouring: a randomized, controlled study. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. Dec 2009;41(10):99-809.

McRae E and Boris J. Independent evaluation of low-level laser therapy at 635 nm for non-invasive body contouring of the waist, hips, and thighs. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. Jan 2013.

Avci P, Gupta A, et al. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) in skin: stimulating, healing, restoring. Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery. Mar 2013; 32(1): 41-52.

Light Therapy - The Future to Treat Addiction

Based on the article of Joseph Nordqvist.

Using light therapy to eradicate addictive behaviors in rats.

They targeted light in the prelimbic region of the brain in rats who were addicted to cocaine. They found that after exposure to light therapy the rats demonstrated a significant reduction in addictive behavior.

The lead author of the study, Antonello Bonci, MD, scientific director of the intramural research program at the NIH’s National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), said: “When we turn on a laser light in the prelimbic region of the prefrontal cortex, the compulsive cocaine seeking is gone.”

The study, published in Nature, highlights the role that the prefrontal cortex has in cocaine addiction and could help drive further testing in humans.

As one of the major health concerns in the U.S., cocaine addiction affects close to 1.2 million Americans and is responsible for a total of 482,188 emergency room visits every year.

One of the main problems with cocaine addiction is that people start taking the drug compulsively and lose the ability to function without it. About 80 percent of people who try to kick their cocaine addiction end up experiencing a relapse within six months.

There’s been a lot of focus on cocaine addiction, recently scientists at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee discovered a new potential means of developing a first-ever pharmacological treatment for cocaine addiction.

Eliminating addiction

Rats that were addicted to cocaine expressed low patterns of activity in their prefrontal cortex region of the brain – responsible for decision-making and behavioral flexibility.

Previous studies conducted on humans compulsively addicted to cocaine have found a similar pattern of low activity in this area of the brain as well.

The researchers measured the impact that laser light had on brain activity and addiction using a technique called optogenetics.

Through the use of genetic engineering they inserted proteins called rhodopsins into neurons located in the prefrontal cortex of rats. By activating this region of the brain with the laser they were able to turn the nerve cells on and off.

They observed that after turning the cells on there was a significant reduction in addictive behaviors in the rats compared to when the cells were turned off.

Among humans, the therapy would likely not involve the use of lasers, but instead the use of electromagnetic stimulation outside the scalp, with a technique called transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).

Other alternatives

A common beta blocker, propranolol, currently used to treat people with hypertension and anxiety, has shown to be effective in preventing the brain from retrieving memories associated with cocaine use in animal-addiction models, according to Devin Mueller, UWM assistant professor of psychology and a co-author with James Otis of the research.

"Right now, there are no FDA-approved medications that are known to successfully treat cocaine abuse," says Mueller, "only those that are used to treat the symptoms of cocaine withdrawal, which are largely ineffective at preventing relapse."

The effects of propranolol were long-lasting and could be permanent, he says, even without subsequent doses and even in the presence of stimuli known to induce relapse.

References:

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/addiction/

Your Baby, Jaundice, and Light Therapy

Bilirubin is a yellow substance that comes from the normal breakdown of red blood cells. The liver removes bilirubin from the blood and passes it into the bowels so it can leave the body.

A newborn baby’s liver does not remove bilirubin, as well as an adult, does. Jaundice happens when bilirubin builds up faster than the liver can break it down and pass it from the body.

Most types of jaundice go away on their own. Others need treatment to lower bilirubin levels.

What Causes Jaundice?

Jaundice can be caused by different problems:

  • Physiological jaundice: The most common cause of newborn jaundice and occurs in more than 50% of babies. Because the baby has an immature liver. Jaundice first appears at 2 to 3 days of age. It usually disappears by 1 to 2 weeks of age, and the levels of bilirubin are harmless.
  • Breastfeeding jaundice: Breastfeeding jaundice may occur when your baby does not drink enough breast milk. It occurs in 5% to 10% of newborns.
  • Breast-milk jaundice: Breast-milk jaundice occurs in 1% to 2% of breast-fed babies. It is caused by a special substance that some mothers produce in their milk. This substance causes the baby’s intestine to absorb more bilirubin back into his body than normal. This type of jaundice starts at 4 to 7 days of age. It may last 3 to 10 weeks. It is not harmful.
  • Blood group incompatibility (Rh or ABO problems): If a baby and mother have different blood types, sometimes the mother produces antibodies that destroy the newborn’s red blood cells. This causes a sudden buildup of bilirubin in the baby’s blood. This serious type of jaundice usually begins during the first 24 hours of life. Rh problems formerly caused the most severe form of jaundice.

How Is Jaundice Diagnosed?

Doctors can tell if a baby has jaundice based on the yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes. Usually, all newborns are checked for jaundice before leaving the hospital or birth center.

Babies with jaundice will get a blood test to check bilirubin levels. Sometimes, a light machine that measures bilirubin in the skin is used. But if the level is high, a blood test must confirm the result.

High bilirubin levels can lead to serious problems. So doctors carefully watch babies with jaundice.

Treatments for Jaundice

Some types of jaundice will disappear within a week or two without treatment. Other babies will require treatment because of the severity of jaundice.

Light treatment is the process of using light to eliminate bilirubin in the blood. The baby’s skin and blood absorb these light waves. These light waves are absorbed by your baby’s skin and blood and change bilirubin into products, which can pass through their system.

For many years, phototherapy treatment in the hospital has been provided by a row of lights or a spotlight suspended at a distance form a baby. This would provide light shining directly on an undressed baby (with a diaper on) whose eyes would need protection from the light with soft eye patches applied. Today, advancements in technology have led to a new phototherapy system that gives effective treatment without the inconveniences of conventional phototherapy treatment.